Part A: Terms
1) Fur Trade (page 111114)
one of the earliest and most important trades in North America
beaver fur was the desired fur (found in large numbers through northern North America)
fur was a staples product
Without First Nation peoples, fur trade would not exist because they had the knowledge of the territory,
hunting techniques and how to use advanced tools i.e. birchbark canoes.
Fur trade helped keep peace in canada with aboriginals
Significance: Needed aboriginals to survive in Canada, once they werent needed they were sent away (they
Collapse of fur trade caused a lot of problems due to exploiting the aboriginals
2) Luddism (page 259)
Luddites were protestors against technology
People who feared technology because it threatened jobs
Breaking machinery because scared it will take over jobs
They were only for technology if it helped their job, not took away their job
Significance: threat for jobs
were not against technology, they were against social changes that the new technology reinforced.
they did not believe in technological progress
they were irrational
3. Race as Social Construct
Page 173 Race, Ethnicity, and Aboriginality Nelson and Fleras # 16
A social mechanism, phenomenon, or category created and developed by society; a perception of an
individual, group, or idea that is constructed through cultural or social practice.
The concept of race is defined as the arbitrary classification of population groups into categories (types) on
the basis of perceived physical characteristics. Page 174
Human diversity is often couched in terms of race. There has been no dearth of initiative to a) classify
people into racial categories on the basis of fixed and arbitrary characteristics such as skin colour, b)
attribute certain physical, social, psychological and moral properties to these categories, and c) evaluate
and rank these categories in ascending and descending order of inferior and superior. Page 1734
This is a hypothetical construct, without any basis in biology or scientific validity.
4. Liberal Feminism
Page 49 The Social Construction/Deconstruction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Class Munzynski # 7
Liberal feminism is the modern form of feminism, characterised by the belief that women themselves have
the power to achieve equality. Women had been in a position of inequality for centuries in Europe. Men as fathers and husbands had
authority over their daughters and wives, and this was encoded in law.
During the French revolution feminists emerged to make the case that woman had the same political rights
as men. Page 50
Liberal feminism centered around political and civic rights
In liberal feminism, the concept of society changing itself to adapt to women does not arise.
Liberal feminists insist that all that is needed to change the status of women is to change existing laws that
are unfavourable for women and that will open up more avenues for women to prove themselves as equal
to the opposite sex.
Liberal feminism stresses on individual empowerment.
There are three different kinds of linkages: backwards linkage, forward linkage and final demand linkages;
all of which are referring to international trade.
Backward linkages are the interconnection of an industry to other industries from which it purchases its
imports in order to produce its exports. An industry has significant backward linkages when its production of
export requires substantial imports from many other industries. An example of this is when a lumber
company purchases the equipment needed to cut down the trees (saws, axes) from another company, cuts
down the tree and exports the raw material. Canada is one of the leading mining nations in the world.
Canada is also one of the leaders of importing the machinery needed to mine. It would be more beneficial
to the Canadian economy if we took the earnings from what we mined and invest it in the equipment
needed to mine, rather than importing the equipment and supporting another nation s economy.
Forward linkages are the interconnection of an industry to other industries to which it sells its exports. An
industry has significant forward linkages when a substantial amount of its export is used by other industries
as intermediate imports to their production. If a company is exporting lumber, they should not import
furniture. They should invest in the production of furniture which is made from what they are exporting.
Final demand is the investment in domestic industries producing consumer goods for those in the export
6. Caregiver Role
Caregiver role is given to a person who is nurturing, feeding, looking after the baby. Mainly this role is given
to a mother
Luxton: Labor is defined by childbirth, & physical or mental work, both restriced to woman and woman as
Sex is biological, gender is learned like masculinity and femininity, socially defined; caregiver role is
gendered there is no biological reason why women has to be the caregiver
Adrienne Rich woen are assigned total responsibility for children... they are given the status of caregiver
and this staus as childbearer has been made into a major fact of life.
7. Intensive Mothering
an ideology that holds the individual mother primarily responsible for child rearing and dictates that the process is to be childcentered, expertguided, emotionally absorbing, laborintensive, and financially
In other words being selfconsciously committed to child rearing. It involves being dedicated to her child to
the point that she takes much better care of her child than herself, even if it means cutting back hours, or
even setting aside a whole day for the child to do whatever he or she wants. Children need consistent
nurturing by a single caretaker who will expend an abundance of energy, time, and resources for the child;
this may also require research on what the child needs at every stage of development. Intensive mothers
see themselves as the primary caregiver for the child; men cannot be relied upon for that. Intensive
mothering, overall, is "child centered, expertguided, emotionally absorbing, laborintensive, and financially
expensive." Children come first, period.
Example of Rachel pg 13 14
she considers her child more important than her career, she will jeopardize her job to be with her child and
lose out on job promotions, endangering her current position, and decreasing her material return because
of all those days spent at home coforting children (sick, bday parties, doctor appointments, etc..)
Image of appropriate child rearing it is critical that Rachel, as the mother be the central caregiver.
The logic that applies to appropriate child rearing includes lavishing copious amounts of time, energy, and
material resources on the child. A mother mus put her child s needs above her own.
Rachel believes that comparison of her paid work and her child rearing activities is ludicrous.
Andrea O'Reilly: invention of intensive mothering happened in 1990s economy
even her own children recognize the impossibility of constant, 24hour love and attention. Still, she argues,
society places on mothers the unreasonable demand that they provide perfect, constant love.
8) The Death of Birth
the loss of evolutionary potential
we exchange stability and sustainability for short term abundance and production
reaching a diminishing point where dangerous signs of production are being noticed
natual system is in decline
within past 20 years the worlds forests have been reduced by 120 million hectares
9. The Bell Curve
Revolves around the evolutionary argument of Social Darwinism that refers to class stratification within
Suggests that a permanently poor underclass consists of genetically inferior people
Herrnstein and Murray, the two authors of The Bell Curve theory, claim that intelligence must be depicted
as a single number, capable of ranking people in linear order, genetically based, and effectively immutable.
They further go on to say that in terms of IQ, Asians are superior over Caucasian while Caucasians are
superior over African descent.
There is supposed to be a 15 point (minimum) difference between the IQs of Blacks and Whites in America,
however nothing disapproves the fact that truly equal opportunity might not raise the black average to equal
or even surpass the white mean.
The Bell Curve is critiqued to be exceptionally one dimensional. The book is about differences in intellectual capacity among people and groups and what these differences mean for the future of America.
The authors have used big stats and graphs to intimidate the author into believing this theory when in
reality there are blatant errors and inadequacies between the lines throughout the book.
Conclusion: IQ is not a major factor in determining variation in all the social factors these two authors study
and so their conclusions thereby collapse.
How it relates to Social Science: We must fight the doctrine of the bell curve because it is not allowing
proper nurturance for everyone s intelligence and is withholding opportunities from African Americans (to be
precise). It is a social construct that must be brought down.
10. Sustainability Development:
Is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.
It contains 2 key concepts:
1. the concept of 'needs' : in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which priority should be
2. the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's
ability to meet present and future needs.
It requires for businesses to rethink their work ethics and contemplate the effects of their practices on the
The capitalistic, profit making mentality of business owners is destroying the planet by not weighing in the
expense of destroying the earh in the prices they set in the market (economic theory call externalities, fyi).
This is the most vital and piece of information missing in all levels of economy.
How this is related to the course: Because the planet those big lobbyists are destroying in their chase after
money is none other than our own Earth. Using practices that help extend the planets life, we can ensure a
long, and healthy stay here. Raw materials and most of earths resources are nonrenewable so, using them
all up would leave us without a mode of survival. Ex: James Bay. Polluting the water where Aboriginals
used to fish messed their way of life. Imagine all your resources such as water and air being polluted to the
point where they could not be used. Clearly, this is an issue.
Business has failed in one way. IT did not honor the forms of life that secure and connect its own breath
and skin to the breath and skin and heart of our earth.
11. The 1969 White Paper
The white paper is a proposed right wanting to assimilate natives into Canadian society. you can find it on
page 202 and you can relate it to Race in the course
12. Functional underclass
Galbraith 217, this is the class below the working class. They are functional within society because without
them we will not have cleaners, sanitation etc.
you can relate it to alienation at work Franklin
13. Perspective Technologies
is in the first chapter of the franklin reading its about the same results and no control for the creator 14. The Cult of Efficiency (Rifkin talks about it on page 240 of the course kit)
Big movement towards efficiency, took place in America during 1910s and 20s.
Frederick W. Taylor came up with ways to use efficiency in the workplace. He called it scientific
management. He would examine a job and then break it up into individual tasks. From there, he would
figure out how to get each task done in the shortest amount of time. The more time that could be saved, the
better, even down to the millisecond.
This leads to management being taught professionally in schools. Think of Terry s Firestone Tires example,
where people got hired as managers without any company experience because they had studied
management in school.
The desire for efficiency was not only confined to the workplace...educators were expected to make school
more efficient, as were mothers and wives in the way they took care of the home.
15. Royal Proclamation of 1763
As far as I know, we only touched on this in lecture, and my notes from that day are not that good. All I
know is that the Proclamation was a declaration of New France and the rights of Aboriginals stated in it are
protected by Section 25 of the Constitution Act of 1982.