AP SOSC 1000 FALL TERM EXAM STUDY
PART A (5x10% in 50mins.) Terms [Choose 5/6 out of 16]
1. Holmberg’s Mistake (“A View from Above” p. 4559):
• Archaeologists believe that the Americas were highly populated by highly developed cultures.
o This is an indirect contrast to wideheld beliefs that have been established ever since Allan Holmberg’s
published the account of his experiences of living among the Siriono’ in the early 1940’s.
• Holmberg believed that “the Siriono’ were among the most culturally impoverished people on earth”.
• Charlie C. Mann doesn’t believe this claim.
o However, what he calls “Holmberg’s Mistake” was that Holmberg made the assumption that what the
culture was like when he lived among them had been the same since the beginning of the existence of their
• Holmberg made the “conclusion” that all the native American’s cultures were the same as what he experienced with
the Siriono’ tribe.
Significance: The realization of the "mistake" (in 1982) has caused archeologists and scientists to take a second look, and a
deeper inquiry, into the subject.
o Thus, a full analysis of any situation or event is in order to get the whole truth of everything.
2. Thomas Hobbes (“The History of Social Science” p. 3031, 66):
• Human behavior was a subject to study how humans must act in a state of nature.
• Peace can only be if others did the same.
o Making a contract = society begins with a “social contract”
Whereby men consent to being ruled in a commonwealth governed by one supreme authority.
o Kit: “His theory implies that social behavior is far more rational than it actually is, but at least it directed
attention to the question of what causes humans to form societies.”
Significance: He is the founding father of modern political philosophy.
o He moved away from the idea of natural order that was the backbone of classical philosophy and laid the
groundwork for modern liberalism.
3. Mythistory (“Mythistory, or Truth, Myth, History, and Historians” p.7585):
• Relates to Columbus:
o How he was a great man
o How he founded the Bahamas and discovered different culture and tribes
• History that is combined with myth.
• Individuals claim that their own views/perspectives are true (right): however, one person’s history is another ones
• History: claims to be true (aspires to be true).
• Myth: false stories that contain a moral (p.75)
Significance: Oral history shapes historical reality.
o Mythistory shaped the story about the raven and the clamshell
o Negative: The wrong assumptions of Holmberg’s mistake and Columbus
4. Classical Conservatism Traditional (Campbell and Thompson p. 34, 65, 67 Significance: 10112):
• Mixed view of human nature
• Selfinterest eventually harmful
• Society is an organic whole
• Equality is not important
• Society is hierarchy of layers
• Elites have right to rule but responsibilities for welfare of others: “noblesse oblige”
• Stability of society paramount
• Law & order AP SOSC 1000 FALL TERM EXAM STUDY
• Customs & traditions are important
• Responsibilities & civil liberties of citizens, plus privileges for elites
• Limited electorate
• Mixed views on economy
Significance: Holding traditional values against innovations and change.
o The example of the Sarakatsan family is a clear portrayal of Classical Conservatism by the family as a corporate
group: thus, the solidarity of the family, hostility between unrelated families, the values of prestige and honour.
5. Just In Time Workforce: (David broad pp. 235 Kit. & Discussion: Just in Time Production, Sig: Westray)
• Oriented to specialty markets & therefore require an ability to adapt more rapidly than the mass production of
homogeneous goods under the Fordism allows. It is orientated to small batch production and inventories of stock
must be kept to a bare minimum and the production process itself must be flexible.
• Just In Time Production: imperative to provide lowcost labour. In Canada and other developed country industries
such as retailers that create a pyramid structure. (Pyramid structure= a few large retailers at the top and a larger
amount of companies at the bottom. It results in more industrial homeworking for fragmented industries.)
o Shows the alienation of labour due to capitalism (i.e. pyramid the few rich control several operations and control
and keep other people at the bottom of the economic scale)
o Always be a difference b/w labour and management
o Workers are disposable in labour & management
6. Honor (3 Oct – Campbell)
• In relation to traditional society, it is a form of prestige, respect and essential in family unit
• Members of family are to enhance its family honour
• In traditional society, one inherits family honour
• For males it is associated with masculinity and for women it is associated with sexual shame
Significance: In the Sarakatsan society, the idea of honour is a way of life. It explains their cultural justification of honour
killings and can be explored through the social sciences such as sociology. Honour is really only a topic that is put into
context during the Campbell reading.
7. Legitimation Function (24 Oct – Heilbroner: Ch. 45, McBride & Shields: pp. 202203)
One of the three functions of the state in a capitalist society.
• After the WWII (19451970) there was uninterrupted growth in economy
• During the 70’s there was a recession that threatened capitalism. In order to ensure that people did not start a
revolution against capitalism, Keynesian model was utilized. Thus, gov’t provided social spending for people
(safety net, unemployment insurance, social assistance, family tax benefit)
Significance: It is a critique to the Keynesian economy, a left wing critique of having created an economic system that saves.
This state of the society allowed for its citizens to challenge the market distribution of power and income, insisting that a
measure of equity be introduced, which disturbed pure market outcomes (causes a disturbance of capitalism) Stagflation:
high levels of unemployment and inflation together simultaneously.
8. Immiseration (Heilbroner: pp 41)
• Economic impoverishment
• Related to women & children working in poor conditions
Significance: (The company Maruila from the reading/the entire article=) (In a lecture he said: 1944 governments started
"good faith bargaining" with unions.)
o Globalization, the poor conditions and unfair treatment of the workers in immiseration to the treatment of children
during the industrial revolution.
o Because globalization gives social, political and economic power to corporations to make people expect less from
their jobs and governments also have an impact on the degree of social conditions.
o Individual expectations producing alienation, can be an example of work as a social problem AP SOSC 1000 FALL TERM EXAM STUDY
9. Creative Destruction (24 Oct – Heilbroner, Double Bind of Modernity Article by Bell, Intro theories of Anthro/Soc)
• Capitalism is dynamic; in constant change
• A term coined by Joseph Schumpeter referring to the process of industrial mutation that revolutionizes the
economic (devalues wealth) structure from w/i, basically destroying the old one to create a new one
• Occurs when something new kills something old
Significance: “About the lifestyle not necessarily the product itself.” Capitalism itself is creative destruction using the
destruction of a commodity to increase attention price and demand of a newer. The creative destruction compels capitalism
cycle of continuous investments by creating profits then due to competition and the destruction of old commodities creative
destruction occurs and the cycle of commodities starts again with new consumer interests.
10. Westray (Comish, The Westray Tragedy.)
• Westray was a coalmining industry where men from afar would come to work to provide for their families as the
male breadwinner. Westray was described to these men as permanent jobs, which had desirable working conditions
with wonderful equipment. However, the reality of Westray was that it was an undesirable, dangerous, and equipped
with outdated equipment that was at times broken. At this industry, the workers faced numerous caveins and
inhaling too much methane. There was a disregard for health and safety that occurred at this workplace, as
management did not take in account the safety of workers, instead were worried about was the productivity.
• The explosion occurred one day because the methanometer a tool that was used to measure the methane levels in
the mines was not working before the shift. It was too late for the detection of high methane levels and this lead to
the explosion. There were no union protections at Westray making it very difficult for workers to attain their
workers’ rights. Justice Richards critiqued this issue as he claimed all the members such as the employers failed
their responsibilities.: thus, a path of destruction.
• The significance of Westray in today’s society is that similar issues still exist. For instance, workers are still
exploited by employers in order for the company to be more productive. Some companies do not allow union
representations in the workplace, for example WalMart and individual contractors.
• Any group of people treated by the law as an individual or unity having rights or liabilities, or both, distinct from
those of the persons composing it. Thus, they used corporate form to get out of moral and legal responsibilities.
11. Marilyn Waring (UNPAID/WOMENS WORK, ENVIRONMENT, CRITIQUE OF THE GDP, DOCUMENTRY)
⇒ A feminist economist who writes if Women Counted about feminism and economics that made historical and global
significance. She is significant because she took another point of view on economics.
o In our economy unpaid work (usually by women) is being ignored
o Women suffer from gender inequality: glass cieling
Significance: She critiqued gross domestic product and how believed that GDP is unrelated to the living conditions of
society (for example: environmental cleanliness). She critiqued the Keynesian period with also, believing that the GDP leaves
out half the population and the population itself.
12. New International Division of Labour (BROAD ON PG ???230) THERE IS AN ACTUAL SECTION IN THE