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Sosc 1000 Exam notes

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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Social Science Exam Review (Winter) Part A: The Fur Trade: Worldwide industry dealing with the getting hold of and sale of animal fur from the early 17th to the mid-19th centuries, the fur trade was a huge commercial enterprise across the wild, forested expanse of what is now Canada. Central Part of the early history of contact between Europeans and Native Peoples. Europeans would trade metal for the Natives’ well-worn pelts. Trade was a way to forge alliances and maintain good relations between different cultures. The fur traders were men with capital and social standing, because of the wealth at stake, different European- American governments competed with various native societies for control of the fur trade. Continued primarily by the trapping of beavers to satisfy the European demand for felt hats, the powerfully competitive trade opened the continent to exploration and settlement, financed missionary work, established social, economic and colonial relationships between Europeans and Aboriginal people, and played a formative role in the creation of Canada. Fur trade in Canada and how it led to the exploration of the country and the formation of the oldest and largest company in Canadian history: Hudson's Bay Company. In fact, the history of the fur trade, Hudson's Bay Company and the exploration of Canada are so tangled that they cannot be separated. As a Canadian, the fur trade is responsible for the vast expansion and European exploration which led to the formation of my country. Luddism: The beliefs of bands of early 19th-century English workmen that attempted to prevent the use of labor-saving machinery by destroying it. Biggest resistance of workers who feared that new technology will diminish employment. Movement began in 1811 and finished in 1817 – Workers who protested against Industrial Revolution were called Luddites – they feared technology, opposed technical changes, and acted in self-defense by destroying machines. Began the revolution against technology and how it is doing more harm than good. Today’s society could not function without technology, and people are so dependent on it, yet people in the past worked hard to try to ban technology. We rely on technology because it makes things easier but the luddites did not want easier, they wanted to keep doing manual labor and wanted keep their jobs. Race as Social Construct: Means that people are socially divided into different categories. According to Augie Fleras, all humans belong to a single biological species called homosapiens. Race is a system used to classify humans based on physical characteristics Race is a social construct, we can say that humans are biologically the same but socially different. Could be an advantage or disadvantage depending on one’s race. Race as a social construct can be related to sexuality because there are also debates regarding if sexuality is the trait that people are born with; or is it something people choose. Race is a social construct and not a biological construct – however some people argue that race is biologically constructed so, this topic is opened to the debate. This means that we are not born a certain race, but given it by society once we are born. Relates to the bell curve and IQ testing Liberal Feminism: Is an individualistic form of feminism theory, which primarily focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Liberal feminists argue that our society holds the false belief that women are, by nature, less intellectually and physically capable than men, it tends to discriminate against women in the academy, the forum, and the marketplace. Liberal feminists believe that “female subordination is rooted in a set of customary and legal restrictions that blocks women’s entrance to and success in he so-called public world” and they work hard to emphasize the equality of men and women through political and legal reform”. Liberal feminists want equal recognition for women and men. Often women are the caregivers and do unpaid work, taking care of the house, children, volunteering, etc, and this work is not seen as valuable as the work done by males or paid work. This work is just as valuable but society does not see it that way. Canada has equal rights for all people regardless of gender (Charter of Right’s and Freedom) but yet women in society are not seen as intelligent, are given less wage, are not seen as strong and Liberal feminism wants this perspective to change. Linkages: Backwards, Forward, Final Demand Backward Linkages: Take earnings from exporting and invest in domestics Forward Linkages: Using output on export industry as an input, should take expected earnings to create forward linkages. Final Demand: Take your export earnings & invest in domestic industries & produce consumer goods from extraction of the staple. PROBLEM: Linkages may have leakages of capital out of the country. Caregiver Role: The caregiver role, is the main person who takes care of the children and house to maintain a safe, healthy, stable environment for the family which can be an environment for growth and development Most of the time, the mother is the main caregiver for a child and a pulse of domesticity. Her role is not only to care after her children but also maintain all the work around the house. As a housewife, she is to prepare the food for her family, clean her house, and do the laundry etc. As a mother, she has to nurture children, feed them, clothe them, and socialize them. Her job as a wife includes providing sexual and psychological needs for her husband. Finally, being a daughter, she has to care for her elder parents. Husbands’ role is to provide for his family and do the physical work around the house (taking out the garbage). Caregivers are usually seen as consumers not producers because they are financially dependent on their spouses. Since the main caregiver is the mother, this concept could be related to feminism and intensive mothering. Feminism because of the stereotype of the housewife and that women cannot be as intelligent or strong as men but are more nurturing and caring. Intensive mothering because she is to spend all her time to ensure the well-being and safety and her children and family so they can grow and develop. Intensive Mothering: Mothering is how a mother actually mothers (Andrea O’Reilly). Intensive mothering is giving all the love, time, resources and energy of a mother to a child, it is around the clock care. Intensive mothers are those who sacrifice themselves for their children, they put their children above all responsibilities. They are central caregivers responsible for development and are the only people that could nurture their children. Put the needs of their children above paid work and believe that a child is priceless so mothering cannot be given a salary as paid work is. The idea of the perfect mother is always changing with society and the responsibilities of mothers is growing every day. As society develops the responsibility of the mother develops as well to ensure that her children keep up with the rest of society. The ideology of an intensive mother is to meet all the needs that society requires and beyond to ensure the growth, development and success of her children. There are cultural contradictions to this such as working mothers who need to maintain their house, children and a career. Intensive mothers would feel this is unacceptable because there is no one who could love and teach their children more than a mother and it is impossible to be fully devoted to your children if you are a business woman as well. The Death of Birth: There are many different species on this planet, but when just one species becomes extinct all evolution is affected. The loss of evolutionary potential is being called the death of birth. This is when human activity will no longer be required to participate in environmental damage, but the environment will do this to itself. We are putting our own needs before the needs of the planet, but once the evolution of life is affected we will not have a planet to live on. The death of birth also relates to technology, the global economy and capitalism because people thought that they were all limitless with no boundaries and constantly evolving but this is not true and they need to have limits where enough is enough. Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, a
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