Six of the following will appear on the exam. You will be asked to define and explain the
significance for the course of five of them. (10% each)
The Fur Trade
In pre-confederation times, the British and the indigenous peoples of NorthAmerica engaged in
a trade system to benefit both parties. As discussed in lecture, the natives would trade various
types of furs, predominantly beaver; and the British traded European manufactured goods and
tools such as guns. It is significant because it relates to the theme of progress since this trade was
essential to the industrial growth of France and England while giving the perception that it was
essential to the growth of the Inuit. It was also significant because it relates to ideology when
drawing back on Holmberg’s mistake. This fur trade was governed by a Eurocentric ideology
that the Inuit were primitive and lazy and needed to be civilized by the Europeans. Lastly, it is
also important to the theme of modernity. It was thought that through the fur trade, it would bring
modernity to the Inuit and lead them to prosperity.
Luddism then, is the belief that technological change is not beneficial for society, because
technology is not neutral and creates a system of upper class domination over the working class.
As Noble highlights, this worldview was adopted by the working class from 1811 to 1817 in
response to a sewing “power loom” technology with no economic purpose, only control related.
Fundamentally then, this world view is contradictory to the visions of a techno paradise many
had during this era, as Rifkin underlines, because it permits the creation and separation of social
classes. Luddism is further significant because it highlights the conflicting ideologies of classes
in society. Because the technologies have been successfully invoked and have not received any
further large scale revolts, we can see that the dominant class won the ideological war.
Race as Social Construct
Augie Fleras when identifying race in our culture, highlights that, just like animals, we as
humans all belong to the same species, no matter what variations there are in our physical
appearances. Likewise, in lecture, the documentary “Skin Deep: The Science of Race”,
underlined that there are no inherent genetic differences from people across the globe. Thus, at
the most scientific basis, race does not exist. If there is no scientific basis then the notion of race must be created by society, and, as stated in the documentary be used by dominant groups in
society to divide ethnic groups into rankings of inferior and dominant. “The Bell Curve” as
Gould highlights, is an excellent example of this exact ranking method. In summary, it states that
some races are inherently more intelligent, yet ignores other important social factors.
Liberal Feminism, as defined by Muszynski, is a theory of feminism developed in conjunction
with liberal democratic societies that primarily focuses on a woman’s ability to show and
maintain equality through her own actions and choices. The equality reference point is the white
middleclass male. Liberal feminism as a counter ideology is important because it presents a new
way of looking at society, objective from traditional patriarchal views.
It is a way of diversifying the economy by not causing dependence on a resource. There are 3
types of linkages backward linkages, forward linkages, and final demand linkages. Backward
involves Investment in domestic production of inputs for export industry. Forward involves using
output of export industry as an input. Final includes providing for consumer needs of workforce.
It is significant as it relates to the theme of inequality. Innis describes how natural resources are
so essential to the history of Canada while Lotte Hughes describes how the Inuit were more
focused on collectivity. By Canadian being so dependent on the resources of the land they have
alienated its wealth.
In lecture, Professor Conlin andAndrea O’Reilly both identified that the caregiver role is a
fundamental aspect of a female’s life in the modern domestic world. The woman in this society is
ideally supposed to provide all basic needs of the family including, sustenance, psychological
and elder care. Additionally, the woman must care for her children, which, as Hays highlights,
has become increasingly prominent in society today. Thus, reflecting the patriarchal ideology of
society in which women are only a male’s subordinate figure. Hays further argues that these
create cultural contradictions, “dual demands” for a woman who wants to also have a career
because she must perform traditional woman roles, and her traditional male role. Intensive Mothering
Unlike the caregiver role, intensive mothering involves the persistent participation of the mother
in all activities associated around the kid’s childhood. This role was introduced after the Second
World War, in an effort to remove females from the workplace to make room for the returning
males. It is significant as relates to the theme of ideology because Sharon Hays describes how
intensive mothering is a result of the ideology of motherhood. This ideology is a result of the
ideology of patriarchy in which men are believed to control the reproductive success of woman
The Death of birth
The death of birth Hawken defines in his review of “Ecology and Commerce”, as simply the
effect of Humanity causing the extinction of life on earth because of exceeding the carrying
capacity of the environment. Hawken analogizes this using a picture of weeds growing through
the road. Simply, these weeds represent the staples of the economy, non-diverse and with short
life cycles, that are inherently exploitive to the environment; the road represents the economy.
Thus, resonating with Innis’staple argument, he argues the economy disallows for anything but
weeds, which is invariably interlinked with the environments exploitation. Therefore Hawken’s
definition of the death of birth reflects an exploitive