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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Ying Kong

SOSC 1000November 2012 MidTerm Exam Study Guide Part A 5050 minutes 1 Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes 15881679 contributed to the foundations of social science by identifying what he called a social contract in which all citizens of a state were subject toSpurred by the horrific past in which the government inappropriately abused their power over the people Hobbes intended to create a blueprint for the future with the belief that human inequality was presentAs was discussed in lecture as well as Shuskys text Hobbes believed that humans originally acted in what he termed a state of nature in which humans fueled by the drive to accumulate were in constant competition with one anotherHe believed that as a response primitive societies subjected themselves to a social contract out of fear of each other enabling us to accumulate freelyThus government began as a response to the peoples interestsHobbes believed we have personal sovereignty the ability to sell our own labor and not a pawn of the ruling class or governmentThese theories contradicted the dominant ideology of the day and opposed the views of those in powerHowever in 1688 the English revolution created a constitutional monarchy placing individuals values as a primary role of government and limiting government powerThis new ideology was termed liberalism and became the successor of its previous dominant ideologyHobbes became one of the first modern thinkers moving away from the idea of natural order that was the backbone of political arrangements and laid the groundwork for modern liberalismIn later years John Locke created his writings in response to HobbesAdditionally the economic system of capitalism can be argued to be largely a response to the innate desire to accumulate wealth 2 Immiseration As discussed in Lecture and tutorial discussions Immiseration is an observed feature of the marginalized people in society the concept originating from Karl Marx and his theory of class struggleSimply meaning to make miserable or impoverish the action has always existed and is usually a result of coercion from the higher classesIn the course readings and lectures we have seen the immiseration of the natives those affected in the industrial revolution and recently in the Westray coal mineInitially we reviewed Howard Zinns perspective on the colonization of North America and the effects to the indigenous people thereIndians were harvested as slaves taken from their community and forced to harvest gold for BritainNext Thompson exemplifies the industrial revolution as an atrocity especially for childrenThe working conditions and low wage for long hours dehumanizes the workersThe children were not only physically beaten in as is described as hellish mines they were deprived of parental involvement and most importantly play timeAdditionally Westray because the employees were dealing with negligent management that failed to follow safety procedure as Peter Richards identifies in his list of what ifsUltimately the immiseration of those whether direct or indirect is very apparent in this course and produces an overall themeAs was discussed in 1 SOSC 1000November 2012 lecture Karl Marx believed there was a constant class struggle in lifeThere will always be immiseration where there is growthAs stated above certain instances of history may seem to have a positive progression but it comes at a cost generally for the lower classesTo better explain this significance we can draw upon the concept of outsourcing laborBy paying people outside the union province or country legally lower wages than from inside you are immiseration peopleProfits are made by the money saved but it comes at the cost of the worker subject to less pay benefits etc 3 Dominant Ideology As was defined in lecture a dominant ideology is defined as a particular set of ideas perceptions values and beliefs which is most widely shared and has the greatest impact on social action at any particular time in any particular societyDominant ideologies are not stable throughout history and are constantly changing to suit the peoples best interestsHowever in order to change there must be what is called a counter ideologyThe two coexist in society with counter ideologies becoming replacements for dominant ideologyCounter ideologies allow for the public to view events through a different lens and judge which is betterDominant ideologies are fundamental to society because they allow explanation and judgments on historic events the simplification of complex realities and they provide consistency and coherency to a confusing worldHowever as read in Marchaks text the greater the acceptance of an ideology the less judgment passes of its truthDominant ideologies create foundations for theories to be created to explain social events and processesTo give an example of the relevance of dominant ideologies to social science can be the dominant ideology of North America as discussed in tutorialMost young adults aspire to attain certain stereotypical occupations such as doctors or lawyers and understand the need to get an education The question is who says you need money a good job etc to have a nice life and live the American dreamObviously this example identifies the lack of judgment that goes into understanding the truth of an ideology 4 Aggregate Demand Aggregate demand is a term first found in the work of John Maynard Keynes discussed in lecture as well as Heilbroners text defined as the total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given price in a certain time frameThis was displayed through the aggregate demand curve in which demand drove supply outlined in lectureThe purpose of Keynesian ideology is that the government must increase government expenditures to create more jobs lowering employment and inflation theoretically to zeroTherefore if there is an insufficient demand on the market for jobs the government must raise expenditures to curb this typically through the development of infrastructureWithout Keynesianism when the demand lowers the unemployment rates go upThis also works vice versa if the demand rises so does the employment rateThe significance of aggregate demand was especially within the 2
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