Friday, February 7 , 2014
PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE # 16
• Performance scale – digit symbols substitution tasks. Geometric form associated with each number. You
fill in as quickly as you can to match given numbers
• Picture Completion see what’s missing in picture
• Block Design experimenter has set of red and white blocks and subject also has. The experimenter will
arrange his own style of blocks > Subject has to repeat or mimic> Tests visual abilities (spatial)
• Object AssemblyQuick puzzle put back together.
• Verbal, performance and spatial IQ score.
• Different types of intelligence.
• Sternberg – believes in three different types of intelligence.
STERNBERGS TRIARTIC THEORY (“tri”= 3):
1. Analytical intelligence The kind you need to think abstractly to reason or to make judgments. Assessed
in traditional IQ tests. If you have this type of intelligence, this is what you need to do well in school.
2. Creative Intelligence To be able to create something new. Creativity isn’t just coming up with new
ideas; these have to be good ideas. Inventive and put to good use. There are tests out there that test your
creative intelligence. Very creative to test. No right or wrong answer. Aren’t the greatest? Very hard to
interpret. Creativity involves divergent thinking and not convergent thinking. Convergent is when
you focus on one particular area (to come to a point). Coming up with one correct answer. On a test
when you have MC questions, that’s requiring you to think convergent. Pick the correct one. That
correct one is very easy to assess objectively. Divergent thinking opposite. You got a particular problem
to solve, divergent thinking going in different directions. Essay type questions are a form of divergent
thinking than convergent thinking.
3. Spatial Intelligence Expression have you heard > for somebody who’s so darn smart, man they got no
common sense! Book smart they’re smart, but when it comes to practical problems or getting their life
together not effect. Referred to as “street smart” rather than “book smart”. Not explicitly taught to
individuals. Pick up while growing.
• Three different types of intelligence. Gardiner comes along, and says wait a minute. There are whole lot
more than 3 types of intelligence. There are eight different types of intelligence. Logical, mathematical,
spatial etc. In Sternberg’s idea, this falls under analytical intelligence. Musical intelligence. That’s not what
we think of intelligence. Bodily kinesthetic. Is this a type of intelligence? Gardiner thinks it is. Interpersonal
and intrapersonal intelligence. Somewhat related to emotional intelligence. Interpersonal means responding
appropriately to other people’s emotions (Therapist or sales man example) Intrapersonal > Access to own
feelings. Naturalist – ability to recognize and categorize things in nature. Able to recognize things on trees
such as leaves. Generally people don’t think this is indicative of intelligence. Gardiner criticized. Not w/
intelligence. A lot to do w/ talent.
• Gardner never tried to substantiate his viewpoint. Has a thick paper explaining how he came about of these
types of intelligence.
• Somebody by the name of Goleman. He said he’s on the right track but he’s missing out one type of
intelligence. This is emotional intelligence type of social intelligence. In a nutshell, he came up with this
idea in 1990. Only in 1995, when he actually wrote a book in emotional intelligence, this whole concept
gained a lot of popularity. Several tests that measures one’s level of emotional intelligence. • According to Goleman, emotional intelligence has four components:
1. Perceiving Intelligence able to recognize emotions in other people. Use their facial, tone, and
body language to get a sense of what they are actually feeling. Good type to have if you’re a
therapist. Reading people in terms of emotions.
2. Understanding Emotions People have to be aware how their own emotions influence their
thinking. Their emotions affect the decisions they make. Predict what your emotions can be in a
given situation. Understand when to shut up or speak up based on the situation
3. Managing Emotions Know how to appropriately express and control emotions in different
situations. Some people have difficulty reading a situation, or how to say it or clue in to that type of
thing. Using emotions to enable you to think, and adapt creatively
• According to him, people who score high = self aware, socially aware, better interactions, less likely to be
overwhelmed w. anxiety or depression b/c they are aware of their emotions, more likely to have successful
marriages, being a parent and having good job performance. This has made quite a big splash in the
• This is the key to getting ahead in life. High emotional intelligence will always do better with those with
lower intelligence. People, who develop Emotional Intelligence, will deal better with their emotions.
• Can intelligence be measured neurologically? Things going in the brain. Recent studies that have measured
brain volume using MRI machines. Brain volume has been corrected for brain size. There does seem to be a
correlation (degree of relationship between two variable). = 0.33 between brain size and IQ. 0.33 pretty low.
• Brain scans show that smart people use LESS ENERGY to solve brain problems. Analogous to physical
athletes. They use less energy for their brains to coordinate movement.
• Smart people perceive and process information more quickly. Somebody in class said, “intelligent people
can process information quickly”.
• What about aging and IQ? Do people get smarter or dumber as they get older? Or does intelligence remain
the same. Depends what exactly is being measured. Some theorists categorize intelligence into another
category of intelligence.
CRYSTALIZED INTELLEGENCE VS. FLUID INTELLEGENCE:
• Crystalized Intelligence refers to knowledge accumulated over time. Verbal abilities as well. This is the
type of intelligence increases with age.
• Fluid intelligence decreases with age. The ability to reason quickly, to process info quickly, and remember
things quickly. Speed for doing a # of things. That is one thing that seems to break down w/age.
• What about gender and age? When you look at general things, no difference. But when you look at
specific things, women are better verbally, more sensitive in differences in colors, in taste. Is this a
reflection in intelligence? Man on the other hand, better at math and spatial things, more logical. Are these
differences due to actual biological factors? The brains of males and females different (hardwired) or is it
due to the environment. Certainly, environment matters. 6 times more males play video games than
females. May help spatial ability for man. Things that men are expose to the environment may help them
in this particular task. Is intelligence due to biological factors, or environmental influences? We are
speaking in terms of biological “sex”.
• What are some of the important things with coming up w/ a test? May seem simple, but the whole
problem is coming up with a GOOD test. Constructs something not tangible but exists. Can’t see it with
our eyes. Can’t open up brain. We ASSUME that it exists. Things like intelligence, any type of personality traits, these are all constructs that we ASSUME that they exist. Whenever you devise a new
test, takes years to do. Certain criteria to devise a new test. Before publishing test, you have to include
how you standardize your test, so that anybody who is considering using it to judge whether your test is
good enough to be for use.
• You want to determine which test questions are good questions. Should be able to discriminate. Example,
MC question, if everyone gets the question right, this is not a good question. Should be able to
discriminate those who know their psychology material vs. those who get it wrong.
• If everyone gets the question wrong, this as well is a bad question.
• When computing Centre, the professor gets an analysis.
• Tests must meet three criteria’s.
1. Standardization Standard or “uniform” procedure whereby the original test questions are
administered to a large group to:
• Produce Questions that can distinguish or discriminate. Everybody has to be “uniform. In
other words, everyone has to have the same question. Usually testing thousands of people.
• To provide a set of standards or “norms” by which what an individual scores mean. E.g.
Professor tests level of friendliness. You score 63%. What is it telling you? Not telling you
anything. That particular score doesn’t mean a damn thing unless you know the average for the
group that was tested. If someone said you got 63%, has a little meaning because out of a
hundred, but still not enough information. You get a mark on PSYC and you get a 52%. It is a
good mark if the average was 20%. One particular score means nothing unless you have
something to compare it to. Sometimes developed with different sets of norms. When babies
are born and go for checkups every 6 months. They are weighed and length is measured.
Babies weight and length compared to norms with other kids of the same gender and same age.
2. Reliability Consistency. Refers to a consistency in scores. For instance, if you were given an IQ
test today, in a month, in a year, and if they were all the same, then the IQ score is reliable. If you
found that IQ scores changed from time to time, then this tells you there is a problem. Different
types of reliability measures. More but these are the basis. To determine liability, usually done with
statistics to see the degree of relationships with test scores.
• TestRetest LiabilityIs they’re a potential problem? If you get different scores in the MCAT,
what is the interpretation? Maybe the test is reliable, maybe you’re just improving in your
knowledge and you’re learning more. You look up the right answers. You become “testwise”
=more comfortable in taking the test. Maybe test is reliable, but you did something in between
trial # 1 and trial # 2 that increases your knowledge. Maybe you were sic