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Social Science test 3.docx

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Social Science
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SOSC 1040
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Kit# 14+15+16 Reification and Consumerism as forms of Social Control · How consumerism effects us as individuals by reification · There’s a difference between a want and a need · At the beginning of consumerism, customer bought products because they needed things · Products were sold on their usage · Then stores started selling things based on their emotional value · Customers started buying thing with money that they don’t even have, bought things because it saves a lot of process · Consumerism goes into social relations · Love turn into gift giving · Now there’s extreme social pressure on people that they feel obligated to giving gifts if they have received a gift · Social relations based on gift giving · Relationship become colonized by the society where father feels compelled to give expensive gifts for his children · In order to have consumerism to happen in a global level, you have to take people to become consumers · You cannot have consumption without destruction · You can’t make things without natural resource, and you take the natural resources from the earth · Reification is a type of a deformation of the self. It is both a sociological and psychological condition. It is seen as the highest form of alienation. · People do not recognize that they are involved in reification activities · Reification basically is defined as engaging behaviors and beliefs that we thing are going to make us happy but they work against our best interest · People are influenced by reification because people have fear of death, anxiety · People want to achieve success, and consumerism connect success by consuming things · People are transformed into objects and things, the individual is a conforming subject · It is necessary for consumers to be process in this way in order for the nation to be maintained- nationalism, socialism · Generate corporate profit · People are being convinced otherwise. · Reification is a form of alienation/a problem, even if people do not notice it, because people get trapped into the same thing over and other again. Society tells them that they can become successful by consuming things, so people engage in the same behavior. It prevent people from looking for alternative ways of living · We live in a society where this one way of living is repeated all the time, so it involves in a process of self transformation, does not give people alternative behaviors, prevents critical thinking · To break out of reification, people need to engage in critical thinking · Consumerism wants to dominate the earth · Not everyone is reified · People have flashes of awareness Reification begins with the manipulation/tampering of one’s ability to think critically by and for themselves, comes from socializing · It is very difficult for people to give up their temporary pleasure sensors · People compete with one another for social status, this gets into the cycle of reification · “Never underestimate a person’s capacity for self-delusion” · Reification leads to destruction of a person’s mind and also a person’s body · Consumption is about social communication and connection · Ego brought us dominance of the earth and now its killing us · Agonism and Competition as the Primary Ideology of Power Kit: 17-19 We’ve all been socialized to accept competition as normal, natural and desirable · People get offended when you speak to them in a critical way, people don’t like to be criticized Competition has its social institutions- sports · Competition is evitable in our political system ie. Democracy · Competition is not fair · One of the virtues of competition is there has to be fair play, no cheating · Competition strengthens the economy, the prices will be competed down · Competition for consumers · The society supports competition · We are ingrained with competition from a very young age · Competition is promoted as the primary ideology in the mass media · Most show predators, warriors à what we should be celebrating · Competition is about contest · Most professional sports is about competition and this leads to violence · It becomes a type of warfare, you can’t separate competition from war · Parents enroll their children in competitive sports · Reproduction of the hierarchy: divides winners from losers · Anxiety exist with people keep on consuming or competing · Concept of the warrior is a celebrated one · News covers shooting in schools that people are disturbed that people resort to violence when met with difficulties, but why should they be disturbed that we celebrate violence throughout our lives because we cheer on warriors · We live with a military definition of reality · Militarism and war is celebrated as a norm to help create and defend peace · “Us Versus Them” · This is the basis of racism and many social problems · Pentagon (AGON) refers to the space of battle, a boxing ring, space of combat à Agonism · Agonism is the best way to result conflict by way of contest or competition. The goodness and truth emerges from the contest, the champion represent the truth. · Two opposing/adversary, if one of them wins, they are celebrated as a champion, even if they cheat · The contest and competition is a way to make things happen, seeing as a positive thing · Growth emerges from conflict à Agonism · The society based on competition is presented as natural · “true warrior wins by not destroying anything” à Chinese martial artist · competition builds a strong character- this diminishes people’s self-esteem · conflict promotes growth ie: no pain, no gain · · “Not Just a Game” -- Video notes: · Achievements, teamwork à sports · Sports and politics don’t mix · Sports and politics collide on the level of culture, where our ideas and values are shaped · The world of sports has been traditional thought of as a men arena, immune to pain, sweat up, no vulnerability · Real men do whatever it takes to win, real men are willing to sacrifice themselves to win, they play with pain, never show weakness · Being masculine being able to endure pain · This reinforces the modern values in our society such as war · The militarization of the sports gives people a literal meaning · We don’t question it · Ideology naturalize ideologies and images · Sports glamorizes war, it deceives us the destruction of the war – a form of propaganda? · /40 20 MC 1 10 point long answer question on RACE & Racism pick 2/3 topic questions : Reification, Competition & Status anxiety 5points each ­ reification anxiety meritocracy commodity that gives you status showing how you can belong with the commodities that you own Race & Racism ­ a form of violence ­ is misunderstood because people don’t want to hear about it ­ it’s one form of discrimination (gender, class, belief, body size, ability) ­ Racism is a specific type of discrimination that discriminate against people based on their physical appearances, mostly skin colour ­ Race is a social construction ­ Children identify with those they see as in group ­ There’s a tendency to exclude those we see as different ­ There’s a tendency to include those we see the same ­ racism, there’s a judgment, inferiority, you are seen as less than human ­ in the 1800s people were given power to scientific exports, they claim that Africans are more like apes. They used science to try to prove their superiority ­ invention of race leads to racism ­ classify and separate people into different types based on a hierarchal scale ­ ghettoes separated from the whites ­ even though the goven’t sets laws to prevent racism, the legacy still continues and there is still racism ­ its easy to hate and see difference ­ racism had a function, an economic function – slavery ­ slaves, very cheap labour, but you condemn an entire nation of people ­ create the belief that they are inferior in order to make slavery feel normal ­ racism flourished because there is the economic reason supporting it. The economy needed cheap labour ­ racism was given strong support by scientific theories/beliefs that flourished during that time ie: Darwinism ­ physiological and psychological characteristics ­ strong belonging to a group is part of our human nature ­ power is inequality distributed among different groups ­ there’s a relationship between race and class ­ based on the psychological fear of difference ­ difference is seen as a threat – “other” ­ in exploring the culture of other, people like to seek and discover, but other people don’t anything to do with it. ­ Race is tied to certain parts of history – genocide ­ “Scientific racism: The eugenics of social Darwinism” – Youtube Video ­ the dominant perspective is of the hierarchal order ­ they don’t think the black people will be equal at this time, but they do believe that they will be equal ­ missionaries wanted to changed their religion ­ K. Anderson, “The Many Face s of Race and Racism” ­ race and racism are pervasive aspects of Western thought and experience ­ the two terms differ from culture to culture ­ in Western countries, the perceived biological race is an important factor in establishing social identity and strongly influence social interactions ­ we perceive different racial identities based on what we assume are obvious, easily recognizable biological and physical differences ­ race: physiological differences between human population : biologically based  behaviour patterns : perceiving, interpreting and handling social interactions : physical variation ­ race and racism are the result of ‘imposition of an arbitrary value system on the facts of biological variations in the human species’ 3 Issues 1) history of ‘race formation’ history of racism successive transformation and different kinds of domination and exclusion accompanied those transformation 2) ‘racialization’ ­ issue of individuals being defined by others ­ defining themselves to specific racial categories ­ social practices of racism and resistance to racism 3) forms of racism in Western society The Concept of Race ­ race: classify humans to certain kinds of physical characteristics ­ differences were regarded as the result of race, not behaviour or psychological differences ­ physical diversity is a means of categorizing and separating people into groups that are then subjected to different kinds of social and economic treatment Biology, Race & Culture ­ physical characteristic- marks of identification ­ using physical attributes as reference points for a whole range of other encultured characteristics. ­ We are replying on obvious biological variations to define cultural distinctions ­ Beginning, race used as a technical term, referring to human groups ­ Shakespeare, uses the term to mean the inherited disposition or temperament of an individual ­ Now, identified with behaviour and physical characteristics that were inherited, permanent and unalterable ­ In history, zoologist Curier contended that cultural differences and differences in mental capacities were the result of physical characteristics were the result of physical differences between the races ­ Smith argued human hierarchy is made according to the brain volume of different races ­ Later on, anthropologist P.V.Toblas proved that differences in brain size does not have any relation to intelligence ­ Many scientists attempted to classify humanity into different types ­ The belief that different racial groups were related to each other through a logic of natural hierarchy of groups was strongly promoted and that behaviors was determined by their particular place in that hierarchy ­ Race scientists sought to measure human differences in a wide variety of ways to prove the supremacy of each race and the principles of racial separation ­ Eugenics movement: improve the race by selective breeding ­ IQ measures current intellectual performance ­ In the beginning, NA still believe in the natural superiority of one race over another, but after many blacks and Natives serving in both WWI and WWII, many began to support antiracism ­ When Nazis-Hitler came into power, they adopted the belief that Germans are the master race and Jews were inferior races ­ Boas’ Challenge to Anthropometry (the study of measurement of human body) ­ Boas argued that heredity racial purity does not exist; races are never stable, are susceptible to change because of environmental factors, mutation, and selection Racism ­ ‘a matter of behaviour, usually a manifestation of hatred or contempt for individuals who have well-defined physical characteristics different from our own’ ­ claims that there is a scientific basis for arranging groups hierarchal in terms of psychology and cultural characteristics that are immutable and innate ­ while the term racism is a very recent one, the practice of emphasizing one’s own positive attributes compared to the negative attributes of others has had a long history in Western societies. Degeneration of the Irish, Natives, Chinese (head tax) Native people constitute a social problem Who is response? 1. Native problem for they alone are largely response 2. White problem, white sought to dominate, control, and exploit Natives 3. Native-White problem, originating in the clash between culturally different peoples Solutions to Racism ­ mounting a campaign to inform and educate otherwise misinformed and uneducated people ­ we hold on to our beliefs and associated attitudes with great tenacity. We accept and perpetuate explanations of social phenomena that feel right and appear to be natural ­ resisting racism is a complex undertaking ­ putting an end to racism requires changing the socio-economic conditions under which people live ­ eliminating any political or legal structures that promote or sustain racist exclusions and racist expressions ­ mechanism by which people discriminate against those seen as racially different, be dismantled and replaced Reification and Consumerism as forms of Social Control • Reification is a type of the deformation of the self. It is both a psychological and a sociological condition. It is seen as the highest form of alienation. It arises out of ill-fated attempts to deal with insecurities and fears. When people pursue happiness, social acceptance and self preservation these pursuits can trap people into being manipulated by various cultural forces. • Reification is a condition that the individual is not consciously aware of – it often masks its own workings in the form of pleasure, belonging, self assertion etc. • “Reification” as a process of “objectification” – people get transformed into object like things – for example nations need patriotic subjects who do not questio
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