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Study Guide_ International Migration.doc

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1130
Alina Marquez

1925 railway act September 27 2012 (Creating Canada: national policies, class inequalities and labour migration [course reading]) & November 8 2012 (the great depression, social inequalities, national security and migration [lecture notes]) The railway act was an agreement between Canadian government and the two transcontinental railways. It allowed the cpr and the cnr to recruit immigrants marked as undesirables into Canada for the purpose of working on the construction of railways in the undeveloped regions of western Canada. Significance of various social groups in shaping immigration policies (Avery); provide examples September 27 2012 (Creating Canada: national policies, class inequalities and labour migration [course reading]) & Throughout the readings Canadas immigration policies changed many times with the influence of various social groups. Social groups such as 1) nativist 2) business group 3) government. Policies were often changed to benefit which ever group was petitioning at time. Business group wanted cheap labour which meant undesirables. Government wanted agricultural workers. Nativists were just concerned with preserving Canadian culture, keeping it pure. th Canada as reluctant host November 8 2012 (the great depression, social inequalities, national security and migration [course readings]) & November 15 th 2012 (Canada and European displaced persons [lecture notes]) At the start of the great depression immigration ceased because of the fear of communism. Unemployment was also rampant and so immigrants were deported under the crime of vagrancy. During the reign of Hitler Canada was reluctant to offer asylum to the Jews. They only took in refugee scientist since they could help build Canada. Some of the reasons offered as to why Canada rejected the Jews were: lack of absorptive capacity, anti Semitism, lack of policy frame work. European immigrant workers and labour protest in peace and war 1896-1919 The English speaking Canada required cheap unskilled labour for both the agricultural and industrial industry and looked only to Great Britain and to north-western Europe as opposed to the open door policy that America had. Canada took this stance because they believed that the different cultures which entered America will eventually cause some form of dispute, so they preferred immigrants from nations with whom there were cultural similarities However, immigrants from other parts migrated to Canada and caused a disruption in the vision that Canada had due to the employment opportunities Canada had. They worked for extremely low wages that the ordinary Canadian cannot survive on and where they resided was branded as the breeding grounds for crime. Most of the European emigrants came to Canada to escape the agrarian society in which they lived. The undesired immigrants who returned to their homeland created a form of chain migration by providing information about the economic stance in North America. Migration to Canada was encouraged with pre paid tickets and arranged jobs for the migrants from southern and eastern European. Both British and European immigrants were clearly identified due to the cultural difference but the British were treated as equals because their culture shared similarities with Canadas and they were the basis for the formation of trade unions. Italian immigrants were generally exploited socially and economically. This happened because they lacked pre migration experience and their concentration in Canada was few. The Jewish immigrants were in abundance in Canada and were able to set up trade unions on their behalf and obtain leadership in political forums. The male immigrants formed a bond that allowed causing the overall concentration to look bigger as opposed to separate groups. This allowed them to challenge authority. In 1914 the industrial workers of the world was formed branding all European immigrants as one. They were no longer seen by their ethnicity or origin but as wage workers. The iww didnt last however because they failed to organise unskilled labour in the 1912 strike. When the war of 1914 was on the fore front, the Canadian government detained, deported and arrested those immigrants who from the enemy lands. Because in the war a large majority of these immigrants found themselves unemployed under the grounds of said patriotism from their employees. An agreement was made that all naturalized married enemy immigrants were retained, naturalized unmarried immigrants were promised work and the remainder were interned. This unemployment caused Canada to look to America for labour and they even decreased the money qualifications for the immigration act. With the entrance of Americans into the war Canada had to seek other labour mostly from Asia and the west indies but the dominion government rejected the idea and so the immigrant workers began to look desirable. The non dangerous ones were released on contract to cope with the labour shortage and to cut the cost of running intern camps. In early 1919 petitions were signed requesting that hostile immigrants be deported, however this did not fall through because it will put a strain on the transportation system at the same that Canadian troops were returning from Europe. When the troops returned there was a need to find employment for them and with that immigrant workers were left jobless or in some cases returned to their old jobs of working the land. Tension between the returned soldiers and the immigrants rose and the immigrants were often attacked. The soldiers were not reprimanded and justice for immigrants was not sought. The response to these attacks was the issue of registration cards, and without them the immigrants could not work and deportation followed. To increase the number of deportees, it was said that the immigrants were armed with machine guns. The strike of 1919 divided the country into two groups, the citizens committee which comprised of the Canadian business men and professionals and on the other, the central strike committee. Raids were carried out across the country on the homes of agitators and the offices of radical organisations and they were secretly deported. Ambiguous decisions of the Government , pressure of Government on immigration workers make the class and ethnicity become linked for a common goal of labour protest. Immigration protest were not acknowledged, while protest against them were recognized. Longshoremens strike of 1923-1935 Canadian labour saw European resistance and strikes as an indication of incivility and danger brought by semi-civilized immigration. Gender and labour protest
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