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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1140
Patti Nyman

Exam review Sociological imagination- Cright mills • The sociological imagination- the capacity to see how sociological situations play out due to how people differ in terms of their places in given social or historical circumstances. It is a way of thinking about things in society that have led to some sort of outcome, and understanding what causes led to that outcome. • Mills points out that sociological helps out realize the bad that come out from our own bad decisions and the bad that comes from society • When we lack an understanding we can become false consciousness of your social situation • Mills says that the sociological imagination is useful when the relationship between the person and society is unsettle • When things like the great depression happens people start to tune into the whole situation and start to look at the social political economic • in the 1930s the great depression became a social issue not a individual issue Social structure vs individual anatomy- Dorthy lee • social structure : the organized system of a society made by the people living in it. • it is within the social structures to respect the individual and its within the expressions of the individual to maintain the social structure • if when an individual is shown respect fort heir individual worth and value from birth and nobody presumes to allow to permit there is no conflict because It is within the social structures to respect the individual and it is within the expressions of the individual to maintain the social structure. • The Wintu Indians “do not “give” freedom to their children, because it is not theirs to give” (Lee,6). She expands on this when she discusses how they do not impose schedules on their children they do not make them sleep and eat at a certain time they feed them when their hungry and put them to sleep when their tired (6). When parents respect the individual’s uniqueness they are not being permissive that kind of respect is in the entire social structure from parent to child, siblings, spouses. This shows how this deep seeded of respect of individual’s worth eliminates the conflict between social structures and individual autonomy Concept of the primitive- Diamond • The search for the primitive is, then, as old as civilization. It is the search for the utopia of the past, projected into the future, with civilization being the middle term • disputes would be resolved without a third party (ie. Police, military) • communities have these customs in situations of disputes • primitive society tend to be equilibrium the society is basically meet customs and traditions are consistent because there isn’t much change they do not value change • the social order is connected to the natural order • because of little change people in primitive societies have enduring sense of self, nature, and culture • because western world is living a society that is always changing we don’t not endure self, nature, and culture • Primitive : primary ; not civilized  • Individualism: the ideology that a person as an individual is free and independent. • Individuation : the process by which an individual becomes differentiated from one  another. • Existentialism: the doctrine that an individual exists freely in a society and is responsible  for his own development . • Essentialism : the property of an individual to create a separate identity of himself in  society. Underlying theory of liberalism • Liberalism as ideology of capitalism-because certain ideals that belong to liberalism that have become in the service of capitalism • Ideas like freedom choice that is fundamental of liberalism have been reduced to capitalist functions because you can make certain decisions • Protective right=estranged individuals liberal rights and protective rights are a from a sick (not well) society that people are competitive with each other • The kinds of protection people want are individual • The individual is morally prior to any group • It is general individualism • The generic individualism the western liberalism prides its self own it is non discriminatory • Things like the Canadian carter of rights can see as confront to communal culture The idea of liberalism can act as ideology • Ideology is a set of ideas that protects dominant interest and groups of the status quo Capitalism • Capitalism is a recent development and it is always changing • It is new because it happened in the less few century and keeps becoming new because the system is always changing • Capitalism has lasted for 1% of human history we have a hard time imagining a new way to life • In order to live you have work for wage • And the purpose for working for wage is to buy the stuff that was made • Everyone is affected by capitalism • Capitalism page 4 is a economic system in which employers use privately owned capital goods hire wage labor to produce commodities in order to make profit • The function of capitalism is make capital/money • Wage labor takes stuff and makes it more valuable and make it our of things they were not before • Wage labor is the only thing that increase value • Where is capitalism has taken route it has left no aspect of society to change • It has brought changes in our attitudes towards work, gender roles, family, yourself • Capitalism brings about systematic change • Permanent Technological Change, Enrichment of Material Life, Growing Inequality, Changing Nature of Work, Transformation of the Family, Threats to the Ecosystem Contradictions of capitalism – Engles First contradiction • The first contradiction is between the organization of production in the individual factory and the anarchy of production in society as a whole (Engles, 299). • The organization of production in a factory is in the interest of capitalist to make production as efficient as possible and in order the do this is to have a meticulous organization of production within in the factory place. The production in the productive unit efficiency of that system • The contradiction is between the extensive organization within the factory, which is very predictable, and the completely unpredictable and disorganized production in the whole society. Second contradiction • The mode of production rebels against the mode of exchange; the productive forces rebel against the mode of production, which they have outgrown” (Engels, 302). • The mode of production in capitalism is the wage workers are hired to make products but the meticulous organization of production is so over productive that technology is replacing workers so fewer workers are needed. If there is less labor power needed and the productive forces are over productive capitalist will have fewer consumers to buy their products.
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