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Gender Colonialism .docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES The Canadian state itself exists on the basis of the expropriation of native land and resources, the subordination of native politics. —Ward Churchill (1947-present) During the colonial period, male authority was being encouraged by Euro-Americans in their political and military dealings with native Americans at the same time [native] women were becoming dependent in individual households on wage-earning and trading husbands. —Eleanor Leacock (1922-1987) 1. Who are We Talking About When We Talk About Aboriginal Peoples? - Aboriginal peoples are diverse group - includes Inuit, Metis, First Nations - important to avoid “ Canadian Indian” - Common to hear Canadians refer “ Indians” as if they were one person, and all live the same lives - ^ homogenizing the group - In Canada Aboriginals speak over 60 different languages, 52 speaking cultural groups - More aboriginal people live in cities - 1961 only 60% live in city than 2000 I 49% - 2011 approx. 79% live off reserve, 59% live in large cities like Edmonton and Toronto - Poor living disease bring upon sickness - 8/10 times higher than before - The “Body Bag Scandal” in 2009, varies packages went across Canada, and Manitoba requested it, but the gov’t sent them a bunch of body bags instead - ^ shows how they view Aboriginal Canadians, and Manitoba Aboriginal leaders held a conference with the Body Bags 2. Review (and Expansion Upon) Previous Discussions Relating to Aboriginal Peoples and economic marginalization • Aboriginal people were seen to impendence, they sought to change Aboriginal people (culture and religion) in 1950s • ^ this transition was to achieve through residential schools • Aboriginals are the most marginalized and particular women • Eg: average income was 36% lower, and aboriginal women are poorer than men and non- aboriginal women • aboriginal people have a higher death rate, and life expectancy is 7 years lower than non- aboriginals, and they(aboriginal women) are more likely to experience violence i. average income ii. poverty iii. death rate iv. life expectancy v. experiences with violence b. section 12 (1)(b) of the Indian Act - Section 12 1b is about a women of Indian status and marries non-aboriginal man lost her Indian status due to marriage (and loss of several rights like lost her benefits of a home), if it was the other way around, both spouses have the status of an Indian i. Jeannette Corbiere-Lavell - Jeanette lost her case due to formal equality reasoning (since they treat all of them the same then they did no wrong) ii. Mary Two-Axe Early’s activism - Mary who extended and activist issue and good job highlighting the issue because of activism iii. Sandra Lovelace at the United Nations - Sandra who married early and lost her status, Then separated with her spouse and wanted to move back to her reserve, they prevented her from going and charged her for trespassing, by they denying her moving in they denied her culture and language. iv. Bill C-31 (1985) v. legacy of 12(1)(b) today - 2biv and v the Bill C-31 (act to amend the Indian act), over 25 years were ndanged, this legal continues till this day, so after this bill estimated 35000 women reclaimed their status, but for the 2 generation it was difficult to reclaim their status (means if their mother married non-aboriginal without Indian status, then okay, but if great grandmother and so on did marry non-aboriginal, then you are out of luck since it is an older generation) – it is estimated that many do not have this status because they could not claim It since it is a longer process like death certificate and birth certificate and knowledge (the legacy) c. Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system i. Aboriginal inmates ii. rates of Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal people in custody - 2c i & ii Aboriginal people as a whole are over presented like aboriginal inmate make out 7% in Ontario, 17% in BC, 31% in Alberta and 51% in Manitoba and 73% in Saskatchewan (when only 10% aboriginal live in Saskatchewan) it shows iii. Aboriginal federal offender prison population growth rate - shows that it is likely to get worse, aboriginals are more likely to go to prison and 38% of aboriginal birth rate iv. effects of Harper's omnibus crime bill (Bill C-10, passed March 2012) - the crime bill involves like the abolishing of the sentencing, mandatory minimum sentencing, and harsher sentencing for young offenders - bill is problematic and hit aboriginal people hard d. sentencing reform (Monture reading) - Monture talks about overrepresentation of aboriginal population, and how problematic for crimes on aboriginals (they do not reflect aboriginal justice) A: Gender Relations in Aboriginal Societies Before an
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