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Gendering Immigration.doc

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Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

GENDERING IMMIGRATION The development of Canadian citizenship and naturalisation laws reflect the legacy of British legal tradition of the subject, British imperial policies and the imperatives of a white settler formation. —Enkashi (Ena) Dua 1. Segue From Aboriginal Peoples to Immigration a. Last week’s Federal Court decision: Harry Daniels et al v. Her Majesty the Queen et al - may be appealed, within 30 days b.Attawapiskat Chief Teresa Spence and the “Idle No More” Movement - idle no more movement is symbolic of trying to get aboriginal people organized at the grass root level (grass root=comes from below) - non-aboriginal politicians have been making decisions for aboriginal communities - Todays political leaders are working for a centralized process and is not the way of aboriginal people, male aboriginal leaders feel trapped (since it controls their decisions) - The “grass root” people are left from the decision making process - It started because Bill C-45, passed on Dec 2012, first utuallateral changes (white non-aborignal politicians changing indian act {like easier surrender for their land} and the waters protection act {lossen environmental water in Canada}} - Teresa did not attend the meeting and is currently on her hungry strike c. welcome letter from Jason Kenney (Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism) - the welcome letter, two years ago (2010-2011), doesn’t imply of land, or economic systems, neither does it show “civilizing” effect, not a “partnership”, - Canadian nationalism mythology, there isn’t any “truth” 2. Immigration and the Social/Legal Construction of “White Canada” a.British North America (BNA) Act (1867) - assumptions of who is desirable immigrant have reflected that not only is Canada is a white nation but also a Canadian state of labor - ^ since the 1960s we no longer have racist laws (in theory), the state of labor has been an important part of federal strategy, the birth rate of Canada is low and does not fill the labor jobs in Canada - BNA ACT “a male British subject age 21 years or upwards being a house holder” in other words a man born in British territories, you were automatically a citizen of Canada - ^ stated who was and was not qualified for citizenship b.Naturalisation Act (1881) - “ the status being of an infant, luntic, idiot or married women” c. Chinese Immigration Act (aka “Chinese head tax”) (1885) - Chinese act, about Chinese men arrived in the 1800s, hoped to make fortune in the gold rush, over 17,000 Chinese workers employed in the CPR, paid half the wages of the white workers and 600 Chinese workers died - ^ when CPR was completed many were out of a job - Asiatic Exclusion league, the gov’t tried to find ways by for Chinese people from coming to Canada, then the “Chinese head tax” was placed to discouraged to come (was 50$ then 1900 was 100$, then 1903 was 500$) d. Chinese Exclusion Act (1923) - in 1923 it was prohibited (CE Act) - ^ was appealed in 1927 e. Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) - gentlemen’s agreement is about not immigrating to Canada f. Japanese internment during WW II - 80% of Japanese in Canada were put in internment camps and their property was auctioned off g.Continuous Journey Stipulation (1908) - continuous journey stipulation, where Canada was part of British empire, ideology is that everyone’s equal, and since it was part of it, any citizen was “ought” to enter (included people from India), this stipulation made it impossible, because it must come from a direct journey and not divert the route (gov’t knew it was impossible because it can’t be done) h. Gurdit Singh and Komagata Maru (1914) Film Clip: Continuous Journey (Canada, 2004) - Indian activist, brought 300 immigrants in Canada, since Singh knew it had to be “continuous” and when he arrived, everyone was denied to come to Canada - Komagata Maru was parked in Canada for 2 month, then sent back to India - Important legal precedent i. “Voyage of the Damned” (1939) - prior to the 1960s, Canada let in NO refugees, many Europeans in late 1930s because of the Nazi movement, and Canada refused to let them in - 1930s men responsible was, Frederick Charles Blair, was determined to keep Jewish Refugee out of Canada - The SS saint Louis, and carried 30 Jewish people sought refuge in Canada but was sent back to Europe (Where they died) 3. Contemporary “Points System” and Supposed Gender/Race “Neutral” Law - by the 1960s the laws became an embarrassment, and their treatment of refugees, and was hurting the standing of the united nations, and was pressured to change its laws by nations, in 1960s Canada adopted the Bill of Rights - ^ 1960s in post war era, Europe economy improved, eastern European were not able to immigrant in Canada - the international pressure to change canada or “desirable” or white immigrants (because of the good economy) did not come to Canada so Canada changed its racist laws - 1962, the existing system from eurpoean was abandon and 1967 was replaced with the “point system” first time not racist, - “point s
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