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Paid and Unpaid Labour.doc

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

PAID AND UNPAID LABOUR Women constitute 1/2 of the world’s population, perform nearly 2/3 of its work hours, receive 1/10 of the world's income and still own less than 1% of the world's property. —United Nations 1. Thinking Through the Relationship Between Gender, Paid and Unpaid Labour - the three classic: pay equality, equity and sexual harassment a. film clip: Who's Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics (Canada, 1995) - Marilyn (first female MP in New Zealand, and elected when she was 23) she Is also an economist - ^ quite influential in the UN - Cathy is a housewife from New Zealand and ben works for the military (from US) - ^ she is economically enactive and currently unoccupied - ^ Ben is economically active, his work has value not like Cathy’s occupation as a housewife b. discussion of case studies: Cathy and Ben - Cathy is working all day and longer than 8 hrs, she is not considered not working at all - Clearly, she’s active not considered economically not active - Whereas Ben is just sitting and waiting for the command for nuclear war, he is considered economically active and is paid (not like Cathy) c. the value of reproductive labour ($38,412.50 or higher?) - current minimum wage, that a stay-at-home mom (50hrs a year) would make $38,412.50 if they were to pay her - Prior to WWII, there were a few women that participated in the paid labour market - Often discussions like these, (that are after WWI) confusion cause working class and women of colour have been working all their lives - “pin” money would quit working after they got married - ^ some women have always worked all their lives and these women were regulated in their occupation to have poor pay - It changed after WWII since large # of men were compelled to join the military and there was a massive labour shortage, (since they needed weapons) so they compelled women to work - ^ by paying them well, and national child care, where women can leave their children in decent daycare so they can work - Initially, single women were compelled to join but was not enough, then married women were asked (then nationally child care program was established) - After the war, women were fired and ridiculed since the men came back to work - ^ women had difficulty to not work since it was the first time women could get pay - A lot of women, had low pay compared to men, and children enjoyed daycare and women enjoyed working - In the 1950s and 1960s # of universities were built and needed students, so those students were women - ^ these women found that they weren’t paid as much as men or promoted or opportunities as men - In the 1970s and 1980s, the single breadwinner, was no longer possible to survive economically (or to live a middle class lifestyle) and that’s when women started to work - ^ once women entered the workforce, women still face low pay - The “gendered division of labour” that particular types of jobs are associated with men (generally higher pay) and those associated with women (are still dealing with the “nurturing” of children) = teaching, social work and nursing - Feminists began to notice that white collar (executives) blue collar (workers), now has “pink” collared work were marketly lower than men - ^ women weren’t taken seriously as men - In the 1970s and 1980s, there more single women and divorce rates - The “glass ceiling” (where you can see where you could go, but for a variety of reasons you stop getting promoted) and still exists today - ^ even see that women are consign to certain to the law and still don’t earn as much as men and women are likely to leave the legal profession than men - In order to “break” the glass ceiling, women have to be better than the average white male 2.Employment Equity and Pay Equity - in Canada these have been dealt separately - Promotion (employment equity) and retention (pay equity) - many feminists have questioned where there are two separate policies - it’s clear that they work together, and not two separate laws a. employment equity seeks to redress discriminatory employment practices (especially hiring, promotion and retention) b. pay equity is aimed at reducing the wage gap between men and women c. many feminists have questioned why these
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