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Lecture 4

6 Pages
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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1350
Professor
Julie Dowsett

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(FINISHING) PAID AND UNPAID LABOUR Women constitute 1/2 of the world’s population, perform nearly 2/3 of its work hours, receive 1/10 of the world's income and still own less than 1% of the world's property. —United Nations 4. Pay Equity in Canada: A Brief History c. R. v. Howard (1970) -female nurses aid and male doctors, although their job titles were different, they were substantively doing the same work, and women get paid significantly less d. Public Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) case and the principle of “comparable worth” -2011 finally recognized women as being underpaid e. contemporary pay equity legislation is proactive (rather than complaint- based), however, it has many limitations -contemporary legislation has all time of limitations in all provinces except Ontario, because what pay equity does is it creates a fictional universe and that the only reason why people are discriminated towards is because of gender, women are paid less than men and its simply because they are woman. Questions for Further Consideration: Consider all of women’s labour, both paid and unpaid. What is Marilyn Waring suggesting about the societal value given to the labour of Cathy and Ben (from the film clip)? Given this situation, how effective can the law be in improving women’s working conditions and pay? SEXUAL AND RACIAL HARASSMENT IN THE WORKPLACE 1. Defining Sexual Harassment and Racial Harassment a. two forms of sexual harassment i. quid pro quo -demands sexual activity from a subordinate, someone from a higher position demanding sexual activity from someone than of a lower status of them, something for something (no sex, you get fired from your job) -only form on sexual harassment recognized by the law ii. hostile (work) environment -jokes, sexual advances, unwanted sexual activities, touching b. most forms of sexual harassment are “hostile environment” -unwanted behaviour, compromising invitation, visual display of unwanted images (makes women uncomfortable), whistling, leering, persistently asking for a date c. sexual harassment as an expression of sexism that reflects and reinforces the unequal power that exists between men and women in Canadian society d. all forms of racial harassment are “hostile environment” e. racial harassment as an expression of racism that reflects and reinforces the unequal power that exists between white and racialized people in Canadian society -targetting a person because of their race and ethnicity, this involves words, deeds, actions that are specifically designed to make a person feel degraded because of race, ethnicity f. important of thinking through how sexual and racial harassment often work together for women of colour (Bannerji reading) -important aspects of her reading: subject of sexual harassment= white women -intersectionality: when a person is subject to multiple oppression, how they intersect (race, gender, class) g. importance of thinking through other forms of oppression vis-à-vis harassment -not simply based on gender, but on race, class, disability -race is stereotyped of aboriginal women, coloured women, queer women 2. Thinking Through Harassment in the (Paid) Workplace .a sexual harassment as a response to the “threat” posed by women in non- traditional fields -40-90% females have been sexually harassed -working in non-traditionally fields, eg, uni profs, engineers, construction workers, are sexually harassed 75% .b sexual harassment in fields traditionally occupied by women -very often woman in woman-dominated jobs are still harassed, 76% of nurses report to be sexually harassed at work by doctors and patients, flight attendants, these jobs are fetishized .c racial harassment as a response to the “threat” posed by people of colour to white privilege -white supremacy .d effects of sexual and racial harassment at work i. psychological effects -anxiety, fear, frustration, ii. physical effects iii. economic effects -don’t get good references for people who keep changing jobs 3. Heterosexual Courtship Rituals in Canada, Or, Assumptions About the Sexual Availability of All Women a. norms developed during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries established a script familiar to most Canadians today -some people don’t date, gay/lesbians b. men as initiators of all phases of intimate relationship development -men are supposed to make the first move, men are supposed to channel converations, men are supposed to formally make proposal for marriage c. women as passive and await the attention of potential suitors 4. Sexual and Racial Harassment in Canadian Law a. Canadian Human Rights Act protects employees from harassment related to work; only covers federal government departments, agencies, Crown corporations and business and industries that fall under federal jurisdiction (e.g. banks, airlines, railways) b. all provinces/territories have some form of legislation that prohibits discrimination for everyone else 5. Criminal Harassment (Stalking) in the Workplace and Beyond a. criminal harassment (commonly referred to as stalking) involves a pattern of behaviour meant to harass, annoy, or frighten -criminal harassment was not in the criminal code prior to ‘93 b. does not (for the most part) include one act but generally involves repeated actions by a person that causes another person to fear for their safety c. women are often blamed for being stalked; there are many myths about women who are stalked d. strong associations between physical and sexual violence by intimate partners and violence (three-quart
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