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Lecture 1 Gender Colonialism.doc

5 Pages
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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1350
Professor
Julie Dowsett

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GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES The Canadian state itself exists on the basis of the expropriation of native land and resources, the subordination of native politics. —Ward Churchill (1947-present) During the colonial period, male authority was being encouraged by Euro- Americans in their political and military dealings with Native Americans at the same time [native] women were becoming dependent in individual households on wage-earning and trading husbands. —Eleanor Leacock (1922-1987) 1. Who are We Talking About When We Talk About Aboriginal Peoples? - Diverse group including Inuit, Metis and First Nations - First Nation = Catch all group - Indian = Not politically correct -> Commonly used though - 1951 – 6.71% lived in cities - 49% 1990-2000s - 2011 75% live off reserves - 2011 59% live in large cities rd - Reserves have the potential of being considers as equivalent to 3 world countries - 116 Reserves had water issues - Higher H1N1 during outbreak -> Higher concern when non aboriginal got H1N1 and 2009 Body bag scandal where gov’t sent higher body bags to aboriginal reserves as there response 2. Review (and Expansion Upon) Previous Discussions Relating to Aboriginal Peoples a. social and economic marginalization i. average income - 2001 - 36% lower than national average - Women -> Poorer than aboriginal men and other women ii. poverty iii. death rate - 5x greater than national death rate iv. life expectancy - 7 years lower v. experiences with violence - High violence - 3x for women more likely to die from violence b. section 12 (1)(b) of the Indian Act - Loss of rights and aboriginal status of women who married non aboriginal man but aboriginal man married non aboriginal woman gives woman aboriginal status i. Jeannette Corbiere-Lavell - Lost case due to formal equality (treating all women the same) ii. Mary Two-Axe Early’s activism iii. Sandra Lovelace at the United Nations - Lost status after marriage and after separation she wanted to move back to reserve but politicians wanted to deny access and human rights commission said if she was denied access she was denied to language and culture iv. Bill C-31 (1985) - Overturned 12(1)(b) in 1985 with this bill v. legacy of 12(1)(b) today - estimated 35000 women reclaimed their status - restrictions on retroactive claims on second generation -> if your mother married someone with non-Indian status you where okay but if grandma and on married someone without Indian status and everyone else had status then you were out of luck - 100 000’s do not have Indian status because of this revision c. Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system i. Aboriginal inmates - Make 7% of population in Ontario 17% in BC, 31% in Alberta and 57% Manitoba and 73% Sask. ii. rates of Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal people in custody - 8.5x the rate and in Sask 35x the rate of non-aboriginal iii. Aboriginal federal offender prison population growth rate - 38% growth rate iv. effects of Harper's omnibus crime bill (Bill C-10, passed March 2012) - Abolis
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