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SOSC1000 EXAM.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1375
Terry Conlin

PART A: SIX OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS WILL APPEAR ON THE EXAM. YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO DEFINE, AND EXPLAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE COURSE, OF FIVE OF THEM ( 10% EACH) 1. THE FUR TRADE:  The fur trade was known as the backbone of the Canadian economy when Canada was first founded. Control of the fur trade was important to manufacturing, market controlling and consumption of luxuries.  The history of the fur trade is the history between two civilizations, the European and the North American.  The early history of the fur trade is essentially a history of the fur trade of beaver fur, which was found in much of the northern half of North America.  Trade was extended across the northern half of the continent, and with that came the extension of transportation, mainly by waters which would be traveled by canoe.  According to Innis a limited cultural background of Natives created a demand for the elaborate cultural products of the Europeans.  Without Native agriculture, corn, and methods of capturing Buffalo no extended organization of transport would have been possible. 2. LUDDISth  In 19 century capitalism there were workers who destroyed the machines that were taking their jobs.  This was the worker’s efficiently.  The Luddites weren’t resisting technology itself, they were just against its effects on the production process.  An example of this is seen in the reading “ In Defence of Luddism” where its illustrated that technology can be advanced to be used as a weapon. As a science advances individual trates diminish. 3. RACE AS SOCIAL CONSTRUCT:  People become fixed under a label, and society directs a race’s potential and ability.  Social construction, fluid, democratic, suppressive, deterministic  Purpose: Constructing the “other” as a means of constructing the self .  An Example of the creation of races: 1876 Canadian government legislated the Indian Act, creating an official category of status Indian, people who were not given equal rights based on a construction of race. ]  We can define the concept of race as the random classification of population groups into categories on the basis of perceived physical characteristics.  This definition clearly acknowledges the concept of race as a social construction, that is, a hypothetical construct, without any basis in biology or scientific validity. 4. Violent Masculinity:  An example seen in the movie “Tough Guise”. It has always been important for one to be seen as masculine by others.  This mask of masculinity is put on through violence, where the goal is to look tough, strong, and intimidating.  One has to fit in with this view and be manly in order to be respected.  In this way, the “Tough Disguise” is a survival instinct. One’s social survival depends on it.  This view of masculinity is learned through family, friends, and the media.  There has been a change over the years on what is conceived as masculine. Men’s bodies in the 70s were different. Batman in movies wasn’t well built, but in the 90’s he is portrayed as very masculine.  Gun imagery has also changed. The gun gets bigger as the years progress, and a bigger gun means more masculine.  People learn that violence is acceptable through outlets such as pro – wrestling, sports fights, videogames, and violent movies.  This that violence equals masculinity translates into males’ behaviors, as 85% of people who commit murder are men.  An important part of masculinity is the performance of it. People take the “urban black pose” to look tough.  Sexualization of violence leads to sexual assault done by boys. This could be because in many horror films women are shown provocatively to arouse men before they are killed.  Men are taught to be rugged individuals who don’t relate with others and are independent.  76% of men partake in binge drinking in college to show they are manly.  Men outnumber women in reckless driving instances. This is seen as manly and masculine because of the notion of invulnerability. 5. The Medicalization of Homosexuality:  In the early 1900s homosexuality was seen as a psychiatric disease.  As a result, there were many psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories that tried to explain homosexuality.  They believed that homosexuality was a result of improper sexual development.  It was a learned behavior that could be unlearned.  They didn’t have any success however, in changing people’s sexual orientation.  As a result, in 1973 homosexuality was removed from the list of psychiatric diseases.  Scientists are now working on determining if sexual orientation is determined by the brain.  They believe it’s the thalamus that is in charge of determining sexuality.  This discovery will have a big impact, and provide many social impacts for homosexuals.  If it becomes proven that sexuality is biological, then gay and lesbian people will be given more rights.  This theory is further illustrated in the reading of Muazynki . in which it states that sex is biologically fixed and that this theory needs to be further analized and considered. 6. Caregiver Role:  The actual definition of the caregiver role is basically someone who takes the role of providing comfort whether it is physical or emotional  The term is very culturally loaded it is subjected to a conditioned bias that manifests itself into the meaning of the term  Taking into consideration our biases there is a very distinctive definition and value that is perpetuated to this position  The culturally induced vision of the caregiver role would typically be a female who nurtures her family and this can be considered her divine duty as a mother or wife. There are many fallacies with this way of thought  This definition implies the fact that this type of work is of no real value, simply because it has no economic importance  This way of thought degrades many members of society and is promotes inequality  Economic importance should not be the only factor in which work revolves around  Raises the issue of social determination wherein women are inherently disadvantaged as they are constantly pressured to act in certain ways, with modern times it is more impactful as women must juggle their predetermined roles in their homes and also earn financially through so called “real work”  The caregiver role ties into the idea of motherhood which is something that is also unnatural and culturally defined, the ideology behind motherhood is basically a manual for the ways in which mothers are supposed to act in order to conform to societies standards  A shift towards the idea of “mothering” would help equal the playing field for women in terms of opportunism for success or other pursuits. The main proposal of mothering is simply the act of raising children and it does not need to be oppressive to women, thus a social change where no one dictates what a mother should or should not do  In the past women were forced to be the caregivers because their husbands worked and it was their job to take care of the child, but now that both males and females work full time, the duty is more often shared amongst both parents.  Many men now do the cooking and cleaning, and these house hold chores are done more collectively. 7. Intensive Mothering:  Hays’ definition of the ideology of intensive mothering: ultimately, the mother sees herself as a central caregiver (her husband is not to be mention in this context)  a mother must answer to all the desires and wishes of the child, putting her own below.  Must acquire detailed knowledge of what the experts consider proper child development.  Should attempt, regardless of the amount of time and money wasted, to foster all the knowledge  This set of beliefs and ideas is viewed by many as the ‘proper approach’ to the raising of a child.  The institution of ‘motherhood’ defines the ways of mothering, without alternatives.  In her lecture, O’Reily uses Rich’s argument that women must reconsider the ways of mothering and think outside the ‘motherhood’.  Children are economic deficit to parents today, whereas before they used to be born to help and not to be taken care of.  Where did the idea of the motherhood as we know it today comes from?  The historical economical transformation that happened during the rise of industrial revolution.  There was a public and private sphere split. The two spheres of production/reproductive times, with the work being public/done outside, and home – private. 8. THE DEATH OF BIRTH:  Many species are going extinct because we are not taking care of our planet  Hawken’s aim is to change our system of production so we do not ruin the earth  The plants compete for sunlight in order to capture the maximum available energy while trying to cover the raw earth as quickly as possible  In such a system, energy is wasted, diversity is minimal, and the plants are generally of lower quality and usefulness  Their life cycles are short, being mostly annuals  While their output is extraordinary, their use of resources is not very efficient  Plants and organisms do not simply occupy an environment, they alter and transform it creating increasingly varied and complex forms of organization  When an area of land is cleared it is quickly taken over by weeds they compete for sunlight and represent an inefficient use of resources, changing the environment  Hawken describes the industrial economy as an immature ecosystem.  The economy uses resources in a way that mimics the use of sunlight stored in plants .acts as a newly formed ecosystem and functions as a "linear industrial ecology of low information quality" 9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:  Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:  The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.”  All definitions of sustainable development require that we see the world as a system—a system that connects space; and a system that connects time.  When you think of the world as a system over space, you grow to understand that air pollution from North America affects air quality in Asia, and that pesticides sprayed in Argentina could harm fish stocks off the coast of Australia.  And when you think of the world as a system over time, you start to realize that the decisions our grandparents made about how to farm the land continue to affect agricultural practice today; and the economic policies we endorse today will have an impact on urban poverty when our children are adults.  We also understand that quality of life is a system, too. It's good to be physically healthy, but what if you are poor and don't have access to education? It's good to have a secure income, but what if the air in your part of the world is unclean? And it's good to have freedom of religious expression, but what if you can't feed your family?  The concept of sustainable development is rooted in this sort of systems thinking. It helps us understand ourselves and our world. The problems we face are complex and serious—and we can't address them in the same way we created them. But we can address them. 10.THE BELL CURVE:  It was believed that IQ differences were genetic, and that different races had different levels of intelligence.  In order to obtain their results they distributed an IQ test to people at random, and plotted the results on a graph. The graph made an upside down U shape, with lowest and highest scores on either end, and this is why it was called the bell curve.  Follows the belief of biological determinism o Problems with this Theory: o By figuring out which races are the most and least intelligent they create a hierarchy of races. This paves the way for racism. o The IQ test may not be a valid way of assessing one’s intelligence. The test may not have been administered to people in their native language, so they may not have understood the questions fully. The test also is an assessment of Western Historical and Social knowledge, however if someone is an immigrant they may not know the answers to these questions. This doesn’t mean they are unintelligent, since they may be experts on the history of their own culture. o It takes a social theory and tries to make it scientific, which doesn’t work very well.  Falls under Social Darwinism -> A criticism of ideologies concerning their exploitation of concepts in biology and social sciences to artificially create political change that reduces the fertility of certain. 11.THE 1969 WHITE PAPER:  This paper was passed by the liberal government which was to integrate the Native population into Canadina society on the basis of equal treatment.  The White Paper proposed to end any treaties that were formerly formed, justifying this proposal by calling these treaties ‘ limited’ and that they were doomed to decline. *emphasis on the individual rights in the constitution  The white paper’s suggestion to become one society and one government was thinly disguised ‘programme of extermina
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