PART A: SIX OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS WILL APPEAR ON THE EXAM. YOU WILL BE
REQUIRED TO DEFINE, AND EXPLAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE COURSE, OF FIVE OF
THEM ( 10% EACH)
1. THE FUR TRADE:
The fur trade was known as the backbone of the Canadian economy when Canada
was first founded. Control of the fur trade was important to manufacturing, market
controlling and consumption of luxuries.
The history of the fur trade is the history between two civilizations, the European
and the North American.
The early history of the fur trade is essentially a history of the fur trade of beaver
fur, which was found in much of the northern half of North America.
Trade was extended across the northern half of the continent, and with that came
the extension of transportation, mainly by waters which would be traveled by canoe.
According to Innis a limited cultural background of Natives created a demand for the
elaborate cultural products of the Europeans.
Without Native agriculture, corn, and methods of capturing Buffalo no extended
organization of transport would have been possible.
In 19 century capitalism there were workers who destroyed the machines that
were taking their jobs.
This was the worker’s efficiently.
The Luddites weren’t resisting technology itself, they were just against its effects on
the production process.
An example of this is seen in the reading “ In Defence of Luddism” where its
illustrated that technology can be advanced to be used as a weapon. As a science
advances individual trates diminish.
3. RACE AS SOCIAL CONSTRUCT:
People become fixed under a label, and society directs a race’s potential and ability.
Social construction, fluid, democratic, suppressive, deterministic
Purpose: Constructing the “other” as a means of constructing the self .
An Example of the creation of races: 1876 Canadian government legislated the
Indian Act, creating an official category of status Indian, people who were not given
equal rights based on a construction of race. ]
We can define the concept of race as the random classification of population groups
into categories on the basis of perceived physical characteristics. This definition clearly acknowledges the concept of race as a social construction,
that is, a hypothetical construct, without any basis in biology or scientific validity.
4. Violent Masculinity:
An example seen in the movie “Tough Guise”. It has always been important for
one to be seen as masculine by others.
This mask of masculinity is put on through violence, where the goal is to look
tough, strong, and intimidating.
One has to fit in with this view and be manly in order to be respected.
In this way, the “Tough Disguise” is a survival instinct. One’s social survival
depends on it.
This view of masculinity is learned through family, friends, and the media.
There has been a change over the years on what is conceived as masculine.
Men’s bodies in the 70s were different. Batman in movies wasn’t well built, but
in the 90’s he is portrayed as very masculine.
Gun imagery has also changed. The gun gets bigger as the years progress, and a
bigger gun means more masculine.
People learn that violence is acceptable through outlets such as pro – wrestling,
sports fights, videogames, and violent movies.
This that violence equals masculinity translates into males’ behaviors, as 85% of
people who commit murder are men.
An important part of masculinity is the performance of it. People take the “urban
black pose” to look tough.
Sexualization of violence leads to sexual assault done by boys. This could be
because in many horror films women are shown provocatively to arouse men
before they are killed.
Men are taught to be rugged individuals who don’t relate with others and are
76% of men partake in binge drinking in college to show they are manly.
Men outnumber women in reckless driving instances. This is seen as manly and
masculine because of the notion of invulnerability.
5. The Medicalization of Homosexuality:
In the early 1900s homosexuality was seen as a psychiatric disease.
As a result, there were many psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories that tried
to explain homosexuality.
They believed that homosexuality was a result of improper sexual development.
It was a learned behavior that could be unlearned.
They didn’t have any success however, in changing people’s sexual orientation.
As a result, in 1973 homosexuality was removed from the list of psychiatric
Scientists are now working on determining if sexual orientation is determined
by the brain. They believe it’s the thalamus that is in charge of determining sexuality.
This discovery will have a big impact, and provide many social impacts for
If it becomes proven that sexuality is biological, then gay and lesbian people will
be given more rights.
This theory is further illustrated in the reading of Muazynki . in which it states
that sex is biologically fixed and that this theory needs to be further analized and
6. Caregiver Role:
The actual definition of the caregiver role is basically someone who takes the role of
providing comfort whether it is physical or emotional
The term is very culturally loaded it is subjected to a conditioned bias that manifests
itself into the meaning of the term
Taking into consideration our biases there is a very distinctive definition and value
that is perpetuated to this position
The culturally induced vision of the caregiver role would typically be a female who
nurtures her family and this can be considered her divine duty as a mother or wife.
There are many fallacies with this way of thought
This definition implies the fact that this type of work is of no real value, simply
because it has no economic importance
This way of thought degrades many members of society and is promotes inequality
Economic importance should not be the only factor in which work revolves around
Raises the issue of social determination wherein women are inherently disadvantaged
as they are constantly pressured to act in certain ways, with modern times it is more
impactful as women must juggle their predetermined roles in their homes and also
earn financially through so called “real work”
The caregiver role ties into the idea of motherhood which is something that is also
unnatural and culturally defined, the ideology behind motherhood is basically a
manual for the ways in which mothers are supposed to act in order to conform to
A shift towards the idea of “mothering” would help equal the playing field for women
in terms of opportunism for success or other pursuits. The main proposal of
mothering is simply the act of raising children and it does not need to be oppressive to
women, thus a social change where no one dictates what a mother should or should
In the past women were forced to be the caregivers because their husbands
worked and it was their job to take care of the child, but now that both males
and females work full time, the duty is more often shared amongst both parents.
Many men now do the cooking and cleaning, and these house hold chores are
done more collectively. 7. Intensive Mothering:
Hays’ definition of the ideology of intensive mothering: ultimately, the mother
sees herself as a central caregiver (her husband is not to be mention in this
a mother must answer to all the desires and wishes of the child, putting her own
Must acquire detailed knowledge of what the experts consider proper child
Should attempt, regardless of the amount of time and money wasted, to foster all
This set of beliefs and ideas is viewed by many as the ‘proper approach’ to the
raising of a child.
The institution of ‘motherhood’ defines the ways of mothering, without
In her lecture, O’Reily uses Rich’s argument that women must reconsider the
ways of mothering and think outside the ‘motherhood’.
Children are economic deficit to parents today, whereas before they used to be
born to help and not to be taken care of.
Where did the idea of the motherhood as we know it today comes from?
The historical economical transformation that happened during the rise of
There was a public and private sphere split. The two spheres of
production/reproductive times, with the work being public/done outside, and
home – private.
8. THE DEATH OF BIRTH:
Many species are going extinct because we are not taking care of our planet
Hawken’s aim is to change our system of production so we do not ruin the earth
The plants compete for sunlight in order to capture the maximum available energy while
trying to cover the raw earth as quickly as possible
In such a system, energy is wasted, diversity is minimal, and the plants are generally of
lower quality and usefulness
Their life cycles are short, being mostly annuals
While their output is extraordinary, their use of resources is not very efficient
Plants and organisms do not simply occupy an environment, they alter and transform it
creating increasingly varied and complex forms of organization
When an area of land is cleared it is quickly taken over by weeds they compete for sunlight
and represent an inefficient use of resources, changing the environment
Hawken describes the industrial economy as an immature ecosystem. The economy uses resources in a way that mimics the use of sunlight stored in plants .acts
as a newly formed ecosystem and functions as a "linear industrial ecology of low
9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it
two key concepts:
The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which
overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of
technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future
All definitions of sustainable development require that we see the world as a system—a
system that connects space; and a system that connects time.
When you think of the world as a system over space, you grow to understand that air
pollution from North America affects air quality in Asia, and that pesticides sprayed in
Argentina could harm fish stocks off the coast of Australia.
And when you think of the world as a system over time, you start to realize that the
decisions our grandparents made about how to farm the land continue to affect agricultural
practice today; and the economic policies we endorse today will have an impact on urban
poverty when our children are adults.
We also understand that quality of life is a system, too. It's good to be physically healthy, but
what if you are poor and don't have access to education? It's good to have a secure income,
but what if the air in your part of the world is unclean? And it's good to have freedom of
religious expression, but what if you can't feed your family?
The concept of sustainable development is rooted in this sort of systems thinking. It helps us
understand ourselves and our world. The problems we face are complex and serious—and
we can't address them in the same way we created them. But we can address them.
10.THE BELL CURVE:
It was believed that IQ differences were genetic, and that different races had
different levels of intelligence.
In order to obtain their results they distributed an IQ test to people at random,
and plotted the results on a graph. The graph made an upside down U shape,
with lowest and highest scores on either end, and this is why it was called the
Follows the belief of biological determinism
o Problems with this Theory:
o By figuring out which races are the most and least intelligent they create a
hierarchy of races. This paves the way for racism.
o The IQ test may not be a valid way of assessing one’s intelligence. The test may
not have been administered to people in their native language, so they may not
have understood the questions fully. The test also is an assessment of Western
Historical and Social knowledge, however if someone is an immigrant they may
not know the answers to these questions. This doesn’t mean they are
unintelligent, since they may be experts on the history of their own culture.
o It takes a social theory and tries to make it scientific, which doesn’t work very
well. Falls under Social Darwinism -> A criticism of ideologies concerning their
exploitation of concepts in biology and social sciences to artificially create
political change that reduces the fertility of certain.
11.THE 1969 WHITE PAPER:
This paper was passed by the liberal government which was to integrate the
Native population into Canadina society on the basis of equal treatment.
The White Paper proposed to end any treaties that were formerly formed,
justifying this proposal by calling these treaties ‘ limited’ and that they were
doomed to decline.
*emphasis on the individual rights in the constitution
The white paper’s suggestion to become one society and one government was
thinly disguised ‘programme of extermina