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SOSC 1430 Final: SOSC 1430 final review

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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Miguel Gonzalez

Globalization Key Terms (Define) Liberalism Define A viewpoint or ideology associated with free political institutions and religious toleration, as well as support for a strong role of government in regulating capitalism and constructing the welfare state. Significance Wanted freedom for them to become capitalist. Not calling for freedom for the masses. Set some important ideas in motion, that other used to claims rights and freedoms known today Example Current Canadian government (vs. conservative party): - Change immigration policy Neoliberalism Define An approach to economics and social studies in which control of economic factors is shifted from the public sector to the private sector. (Modern capitalism) Significance Rich get richer, poor get poorer Example Arab spring (neoliberalism inside the middle east) Arab spring/middle east vs. United States Bretton-Woods Conference and institutions and relative influence Define Conference held in 1944 in New Hampshire after World War 2 to create an international order and create rules for economic relations to stop instability of currencies and financial economy in order to promote trade. Significance These institutions are a major key in the formation international development for the past 50 years. Example IMF help countries in economic crisis. World bank: long term development project funding in the third. GATT: rules of promoting and regulating trade; aid in Globalization. Official Development Assistance, ODA Define Flows of official financing administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries. Significance Used to measure aid being sent out to countries. Example Canadian government in Haiti, no execution to what was said was going to happen, put more money in what benefit Canada at the end of the day and not Haiti. Basically: Where did the money go? Washington Consensus Define A consensus created by the most powerful actors in the world system that enforced certain laws and rules that had to be followed by countries in the global south that have borrowed money from the IMF and WB. If these laws were broken the country would have to file for bankruptcy. The laws created in the consensus are no longer enforced. (See reading We know what we are talking about pg 14) Significance The ‘Consensus’ recommended the liberalization of capital flows and trade, the privatization of the public sector, and the abolition of market- restricting regulations, forming the basis of neoliberal development. Example Third world countries have to file for bankruptcy however first world countries do not. They can both go into bankruptcy however FWC enbezel TWC money in order to keep afloat, TWC they submit because of 1) corruption 2) they are in need of assistance Themes Structural Adjustment Programs ● Name given to set of free market economic policy on poor countries. ● A controversial series of economic and social reforms promoted by the IMF and World Bank following the 1982 Debt Crisis that aimed to promote economic development through minimizing the role of the state in societies and liberalizing markets ○ The IMF and World Bank use their financial influence to promote structural adjustment policies. These policies involve a series of economic and social reforms designed to promote the role of market forces within the developing world. While the IMF and World Bank suggest that SAP promote strong and stable economic growth, critics claims that their effects have been counterproductive and have led to increased poverty and growing inequality ● Structural Adjustment and Conditionality ○ Severe austerity measures to restore macroeconomic balance ○ Shock therapy: liberalization of prices, currency devaluation, and fiscal discipline, rapid liberalization of trade, deregulation of markets, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and privatization of health care ○ Promotion of export industries ○ Debt repayment assurances Corporations and their nature Goal: money and profit Corporations as psychopaths: -no regard for people bad working conditions for developing world -incapacity to maintain strong relationships -reckless disregard for safety of others: environmental damage, pollution, toxicity, cancer -deceitfulness; hiding facts. Ex: artificial hormones in cows -incapacity to experience guilt -failure to obey law Continue to Pay millions and millions in fines and continue to break the law Approaches to Multinational Corporations (Dependency/Critical, Mercantile/ National) A multinational corporation by definition produce in more than one country, including its home country. Such firms therefore have multi- country production operations. The use of the term “ production “ here is rather loose as it can include economic activity in factories , mines or plantations as well as bank , hotels and offices . Yet although such production may take place in numerous countries, with major firms employing people of diverse nationalities across the globe, most multinationals have their headquarters effectively controlled from there. The retention of a home base in their country of origin is a defining characteristic of a multinational firm. Some companies, such as Royal Dutch Shell, which is jointly owned and controlled by British and Dutch interests, have spilt headquarters, but this the exception rather than the rule. · Dependency and critical approaches o Multinational corporations are viewed as representative of the global capitalist system and therefore negative for developing countries in which they invest o The pioneers of dependency theory attributed an important role to multinational corporations in the maintenance of underdevelopment in the periphery o Connected to the new international division of labor or global division of labor · The mercantile approach and the national interest: o Another common approach to the multinational corporations is to see it as a representative of the political and economic interests of its home country o This approach has been particularly important in the study of US based multinationals by both advocates of US hegemony and its detractors. International Business Perspective ● Views MNCs as differentiated actors with diverse strategies ● Argue that MNCs are distinguished by the OLI paradigm ● Ownership advantages, Location-specific advantages and Internalization advantages ● Provides a more nuanced view of the structure and strategies employed by MNCs ● The Nicaraguan Interoceanic Canal Chinese Company was awarded the bill to build the Canal. This canal caused a lot of controversy because building it would cause harm to Nicaraguan socially and environmentally. Socially: Indigenous people were not asked their views on the canal and building this would cause them to be dispused to a new home. Environmentally: transform wetlands to dry areas, cause deforestation, destroy home for animals, pollute lake which is a main source for drinking water, threaten sea turtle resting beaches and mangrove. World Bank & IMF ● Creation of the IMF dates ● Stands for International Monetary Fund back to the Bretton Woods ● Creation of the IMF dates back to the Bretton Conference Woods Conference ● Originally called the ● Was set up to oversee workings of the system International Bank for and to manage any potential disruptions Reconstruction(IBRD), ● When countries were facing severe economic later changed to World problems, they would be able to draw Bank temporarily on the reserves of the IMF to pay ● Original purpose was to insufficient debts provide financing for post- ● Usage of their funds was intended to provide war reconstruction and a country with sufficient time to stabilize its development projects economy without resorting to measures such ● Now responsible for as currency devaluation overseeing the social and ● Were a key contributor after WW2 however structural policies of countries do not really use them anymore ass participating countries they would be in even more debt than they already are ● Puts the global economy on a path of greater inequality ● It insures debt repayments from the countries by requiring countries that borrowed money from them to cut spending on health, education, and transportation in order to pay them back ● Now the IMF focuses on a familiar range of macroeconomic policies and objectives World Trade Organization The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was an international organization created in 1947 to reduce trade barriers through multilateral negotiations. In January 1995, the GATT was replaced by a stronger World Trade Organization (WTO), the result of eight years of GATT negotiations. Today, member countries number 125 (nearly the whole world except China, some former communist countries, and a number of small nations) and WTO rules apply to over 90 percent of international trade. Although still a little- known and little-understood institution, the WTO has become increasingly controversial as it has expanded the scope of its work from its original narrow GATT focus on reducing tariffs on manufactured goods. The WTO now also works to eliminate nontariff barriers, and can be used to challenge environmental, health, and other regulations that may serve legitimate social goals but may be regarded as impediments to international trade. The 1995 replacement of GATT by the WTO heightened concern among critics because it’s stronger enforcement powers represent a further shift in power from citizens and national governments to a 8 global authority run by unelected bureaucrats. Business, academic, and government supporters applaud the WTO as a more muscular sheriff of the world trading system. ADD IF NEEDED (Created in 1995 to administer a number of international trade agreements involving goods, food, patents, intellectual property rights and services and enforced an extensive body of rules intended to limit the power of governments and increase opportunities for transnational business trade Linked to GATT) Privatization of Water ● ● Fighting against the privatization of the commons ● “Water for All” Global Water Justice Movement ● Companies can increase cost of water, and lower quality standards, once they have privatized the system which has caused huge backlash in Asia, Africa and Latin America (but increasingly in the States and Canada as well) Resistance to privatization is difficult because of: 1) Some governments commitments to neoliberal ideology and policy (i.e. Chile) 2) Debt and conditionalities 3) Lack of recognition of access to water as a right 4) Water inequality some people benefit, others suffer (i.e. South Africa) National and Transnational movement against the privatization of water (i.e. “Quit India” Coca-Cola campaign has received transnational attention) ● A mature international water justice movement has been forged and is shaping the future of the world’s water ● “The growth of a democratic water justice movement is a critical and positive development that 9 will bring needed accountability, transparency and public oversight to the water crisis as conflicts over water loom on the horizon” Example: Blue Gold film Compare & Contrast/ Relationships Globalization A process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions-assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact-generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and the exercise of power. Globalization from Above Globalization from Below ● Susan George calls it the latest stage ● Efforts from ordinary citizens to challenge of world capitalism our current ideas about development proposed by transnational institutions Vs. policies of political framework government that are not in the interests of ● Neoliberalism- Corporate led the poor ● Transnational corporations play an ● Challenging power relations, promote important in political economy new principles and ethical ideas of ● Finance driven (IMF and WB) development ● Promote this form of globalization o ● Social movements and civil society Impeded in the SAPS ● Challenge to neoliberalism and ● It has increased inequality between globalization x inequalities and and within nations Presenting alternatives for development ● Increased environmental degradation ● Global water justice movement 1. Shift from national to global problems and the Over exploitation from limited resources 2. Transnational links- use new communications ● Political repression, Slower growth technology for its own purposes rates in most countries 3. Seek to protect physical essentials of life 4. Seeking to defend common good and shared ● Has also shown a decrease in humanity previous developments 5. Mobilize to defend and expand democracy State-led vs. market-led development State-led Market-led ● After seeing the legacies of ● Market led development is built on three colonialism and the impact it had on principle foundations: appropriate their countries, state leaders made incentives, private property, and stable attempts to overcome dependency macro-economic development and consequently boost the ● Requires putting capital and labour economy. Nationalism began to rise together to create products that add value and the legacies of colonialism were becoming minimal as state leaders took matters into their own hands. Environmental & human rights protections as trade barriers - The WTO promotes and protects the trade in environmental services, encourage in across-border trade and investment in private water cleanup companies. As in all tradable goods and services, governments are encouraged to relinquish public control of water treatment to the private sector and have to ensure that any rules they have in place are the lead trade restrictive. This means their rules and regulations meant to protect the public and the environment must not hamper private business and the pressure is on the government to lower their standards. Dominant institutions of the global economy are largely immune to the human rights law (UNDHR). WTO, IMF and WB rules are not subordinate to the UDHR in its accompanying covenants, and the WTO refuses to incorporate human rights and labor standards into its operations render them null in the context of the global economy Water: commodity or public good? ● Water is a commodity ● Access to water is available to those who can afford it ● Fresh water supplies are being privatized ○ Private, for-profit water companies now provide municipal water services in many parts of the world; put massive amount of freshwater in bottles for sale‘ control vast quantities of water used in industrial farming, mining energy production ● The shift from public to a private model of water services can be traced to the rise of neoliberalism, market based ideology ● For pro-fit companies wheel a lot of power in decision related to water ○ Example: bottled water, delivery services ○ Rise in the cost of access to water ● The WB encourages water privatization ○ Some of the Banks agencies only will lend money to developing countries if they adopt a private water delivery model ● In 1992 in Dublin with attendance of over 100 countries and NGOs it was declared that water had an economic value! ● Creates water inequality ● Public good ○ Water is delivered by state owned public service ○ Should be a basic right GLOBALIZATION'S): Challenges and Alternatives Key Terms (Define) globalization from below Define Efforts from ordinary citizens to challenge ideas about development proposed by transnational institutions Vs. policies of government that are not in the interests of the poor. Significance ● Challenging power relations, promote new principles and ethical ideas of development ● Social movements and civil society ● Challenge to neoliberalism and globalization ● Challenging inequalities ● Presenting alternatives for development Example Global water justice movement Themes social movements ● Organized collective efforts seeking to change (or to resist change in) some major aspect of society ● Efforts from ordinary citizens to challenge ideas about development proposed by transnational institutions ● Social movements can be both progressive and regressive: not necessarily the good guys ● Enter into conflictual relations with clearly identified opponents ○ E.g. people vs. mining company, or a developer…. ● Make collective claims, have a target and make demands ● Share identity and goals ● Organized in informal networks ● Social movements form due to negative policies ○ Policies favor economic interest in stead of the populations ● Most social movements emerge out of pre-existing social networks ● E.g. neighborhood associations ● Non-state actors acting at the global level and engaging with global institutions and processes ● Global Civil Society is about understanding globalization 'from below,' from the perspective of ordinary people ● Global civil society also challenged neo-liberal globalization ○ Movement from below Triadic model of development and its paradoxes ● Trying to overcome state-market dichotomy ● States, markets, and civil society (third sector) ● Equal partners in development (conflict between WB and Social Movements on what this means, however) ● IMF and WB reluctantly… ● Social Movements demand for state to play a reprogressive role Fair trade movement & ethical consumerism The fair trade movement was started in 60s by a solidarity movement. Fair trade is ethical consideration in economic transactions and equitable partnerships (northern consumers- southern producers). Fair trade also makes trade work for small producers and has social control over market mechanisms which results in consumer responsibility The main goal in fair trade is to forge a long-term relationship between buyer and seller that can provide some stability against market fluctuations. Free Trade ● Advocated by the WTO, and other development institutions 
 ● Accountability 
 ● Many trade deals made in secret
o Adjudication of disputes under WTO/NAFTA tend to be done in secrecy o Little space for citizen input
o Relies on notion of the i̳ nvisible hand‘ behind markets
o What t̳ on‘t like‘ is regulation 
 ● Believe that free trade sparks competition, which leads to technological innovation and specialization 
 ● Idea of comparative advantage Fair Trade 
 A political-economic concept that has gained popularity since WW2, promised on a belief in the need for international market regulation in the interests of poorer southern nations to combat the historical legacy of colonialism, dependency, and underdevelopment. Proponents of fair trade tend to focus on two issues: the development and expansion of interventionist mechanisms to ensure fair prices and living standards for farmers and workers in the Global South and the elimination for unfair protectionist policies in the North ● Promoted by NGOs and concerned citizens 
 Benefits: ● Direct producers in the Third World rather than large corporations 
 ● Fair traders argue it is necessary to use market regulation to protect the weak, not 
the strong 
 ● Fair traders criticize free trade proponents for focusing to much on abstract trade models while neglecting both the actual political conditions under which the battle for comparative advantage is carried out and the human impact of this competitive struggle Working conditions (to achieve certification) 
 ● Cooperative and democratic workplace ● Recognize trade unions, No child labour, Healthy and safe working conditions Fair Trade Network and Ethnical Consumerism ● A network that connects small farmers, workers, and craftspeople in the south with organizations and consumers in the North through a system of fair trade rules and principles, including democratic organization, no exploitation of child labor, environmental stability, a minimum guaranteed price, and social premiums paid to producer communities to build community infrastructure 
 ● Fair trade educates consumers 
 ● Consumer responsibility 
 ● Responsibility to learn about conditions of how goods are produced ● Socially responsible consumers
 ● Not just the cheapest, should ask questions about how things are made ● How were labor conditions/environmental regulations addressed Compare & Contrast/ Relationships Subsistence, Economic, Environmental Rights Subsistence Rights ● Of all the universal rights to life that people can claim on this planet, some are essential to human survival. No matter who we are or where we live, we cannot live without food and water. ● Subsistence rights are the rights to the fundamental, physical conditions that make life possible. Peoples fundamental rights to: ○ Food security ■ People are becoming dependent on agribusiness corporations and trading for their food supply ■ Food is not being produced by local farmers, but by giant corporations for global markets ● Control the global food market ○ Fresh water ■ More than a billion people lack access to clean water ■ 800 billion dollar industry ■ Popular resistance is starting ○ Food safety ■ The science of biotechnology is changing how crops and animals are genetically engineered Economic Rights ● Since the Industrial Revolution, workers have fought for fair wages and working conditions, not only to ensure their incomes are enough to meet basic needs, but also to gain a sense of self-worth and human dignity ● UN Declaration of Human Right declares all people have the right to world, to free of choice of employment and to protection against unemployment ○ Contingent Work ■ Precarious, part-time jobs, insecure forms of employment have been on the rise ■ Jobs in the service sector of soared, and most people employed are women, children and people of color ○ Sweatshop Labor ■ Corporations are shifting their production offshore, for cheap labor conditions ■ Dangerous conditions ■ Mainly located in free trade or export processing zones where corporation are allowed to operate outside the labor and environmental laws of the host country ○ Debt Bondage ■ Money must go to paying debts instead of paying for social services Environmental Right ● 1992 Rio Summit laid the foundation for international environmental action ○ Climate Change ■ Global warming ■ Caused by the emission of the main greenhouse gases ( carbon dioxide, methane) into our atmosphere ■ Will increase droughts and flooding and the spread of infectious diseases ○ Rivers and Dams ■ The damming and flooding of river systems has been met with long term resistance ○ Fish and Forest ■ Fighting for the growth of forests Social, Cultural and Human Rights Social Rights: The recognition of the basic social rights such as housing, education, social assistance, and income security has been an ongoing priority for civil society groups in most countries. Over the past fifteen years, however, basic social rights have become the target of a relentless series of assaults through government cutbacks, privatization, and deregulation. For the poor countries of the south, the Structural Adjustment Programs of the IMF and the World Bank have dealt a devastating blow to whatever basic social programs and public services may once had. Cultural Rights: It’s generally recognized that all people have the right to preserve their own languages, values, customs, traditions, and heritage. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights- in its Article 22 and 27, among others touches on some of these elements, but at fuller recognition of cultural rights is found in the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. In spite of these safeguards, however, cultural rights are violated every day. Around the world, an ersatz culture of Hollywood blockbuster movies and globalized music, television, and mass market book industry are creating a global monoculture, where one language and one set of customs and traditions predominates. Human Rights: 11 Human rights violations have been roundly condemned in the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the accompanying covenants, International Labour Organizations (ILO0 conventions, and resolutions resulting from the Beijing Conference on women’s rights. From time to time, the UN commission on Human Rights has also played a role in mobilizing nation-state to eliminate the practices that
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