Lecture#4 Oct 9 2012
Gender and development
1) Intro: understanding gender
2) Why is gender a development issue?
3) Gender, Class and race/ethnicity
4) Women in development (WID) and Gender and development (GAD)
• Ways in which we understand development has changed (greater recognition of
various issue and dimensions not examined in previous approaches)
• Two issues not discussed in prior paradigms : gender and the environment,
relatively new issues
• Within modernization theory and dependency theory academic understanding of
development is a central concern (both, for policy making and for promoting
broader political movement.
• Realization: citizen’ groups can play a role. For instance, women’s movement
both North and South.
• Academic trends and changes especially in social sciences always related to
boarder political developments
Of the world’s 1.3 billion poor people, it is estimated that nearly 70% are women.
IMPROVEMENT- When considering condition of women across societies:
• More women working for wages than ever in human history; higher rate of increase
in participate in the labour face than men;
• Canada 1976 to 2009 the employment route for women with children had been
steadily on the rise * the past 3 decades. In 2009, 79.9% of woman and
children where the age of 16 living at home where employment , nearly twice the
rate 39.1% are ** • Gap separate boys and girls has been narrowing free for the Global well-being
• Women are living longer, life expentary has increased worldwide:
-1970: average was 54years
-1992: up to 61
-2007: up to 66
• Significant decline in birth rate,
• More women entering politics
Even more so at the grassroots and in social movement
• More rights recognized in legislation ( both domestic and international
So there are reasons for concerns:
Between 75 and 80 per cent of the world’s 27 million refugees are women and
66% if illiterate adults are women;
Women hold 11.7 per cent of the seats in the world’s parliaments
Of the 185 highest-ranking diplomats to the UN, seven are women
Even in country where progressive land passed, often they are not enforced.
Need permission from spouses to work;
Every day, approximately 800 women die from presentable causes related to
pregnancy and childbirth.
Half million women die every year from preventable complication in pregnancy
In 2010, 287,000 women died * and following pregnancy and childbirth
99% if all maternal deaths occurs in developed countries
Material mortality is increased in woman living in rural areas and among poorer
communities. “Son preference” still wide spread:
-Assuming son is much better than a daughter- a cultural practice in
many societies- women can as a liability
- “Raising a daughter is like watering your neighbours’ garden
-practice of paying for daughter to get married into another family
-In Canada- fathers of the bride expected to pay for the wedding
Has created significant distortion in demographic terms:
o For every 100 boys born 95 girls (average)
o Many countries where son preference is the norm; the practice has distorted
92 million women will be missing if normal treads developed
Modern tests such as ultrasound, others that reveals sex of child being
used to which come into families, through abortions or infanticide
o 35$ for an abortion, 3800$ fir a dowry
II) Understanding gender
Our gender us perhaps the single most determinate of who we become in life,
o Opportunities available
Ex.) Health care, jobs, politics
Human are social beings
o Social, as we need each other for mutual survival; live in groups and societies
Large and small
More of us its self-sufficient
That in itself does not distinguish us from other species
o Cultural being- this us unique Produce meaning of our environment, relations to another, produce ways
of life we call Culture.
Means of communication such a language that enable us to come to
shared understanding and to communicate with one another
o Culture determines aspirations, values:
Ex) water; meaning that could be ascribed are different; though physically
it’s the same thing.
Need to survive
Baptism, use to purify sins
We are mostly made of water
Sources of energy- hydro
Food production sources
Commodity ( highly controversial)
-Gender us is another thing are attach meaning to:
o Sex –Biological difference
-male and female
o Gender is a cultural/ social meaning
Masculinity and feminist
Socially constructed difference prioritization of are over the other
Roles= behavioral expectation
Men and woman
o These roles can act as “ scripts’ that we learn early in life about how we should
Psychologies call this “socialization” ( about gender relations) - Gender relation change:
From culture to culture;
Out view may not be the same as other societies and in ways could be
-Different meaning of gender
III) Why is gender a development issues?
- Development policies ARE NOT gender neutral
No matter how ‘apolitical’ or technical they might seen
They often affect men and women differently
- So at least at the level of policy this must be kept in mind.
Ex) Austerity measure out back of the last 20 years
- Adopted by government to fiscal deficit
o Cut to health care, education etc.
- Need to ask are BOTH men and women affected by a policy?
Ex) Close a day-care center to save money
Ex) cut free meals/ subsidies for poor families.
How the poor in the Global South cope with