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Oct 9 - Gender and developemnt-2.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1430
Eduardo Canel

Lecture#4 Oct 9 2012 Gender and development 1) Intro: understanding gender 2) Why is gender a development issue? 3) Gender, Class and race/ethnicity 4) Women in development (WID) and Gender and development (GAD) 5) Conclusion Introduction: • Ways in which we understand development has changed (greater recognition of various issue and dimensions not examined in previous approaches) • Two issues not discussed in prior paradigms : gender and the environment, relatively new issues • Within modernization theory and dependency theory academic understanding of development is a central concern (both, for policy making and for promoting broader political movement. • Realization: citizen’ groups can play a role. For instance, women’s movement both North and South. • Academic trends and changes especially in social sciences always related to boarder political developments Of the world’s 1.3 billion poor people, it is estimated that nearly 70% are women. IMPROVEMENT- When considering condition of women across societies: • More women working for wages than ever in human history; higher rate of increase in participate in the labour face than men; • Canada 1976 to 2009 the employment route for women with children had been steadily on the rise * the past 3 decades. In 2009, 79.9% of woman and children where the age of 16 living at home where employment , nearly twice the rate 39.1% are ** • Gap separate boys and girls has been narrowing free for the Global well-being • Women are living longer, life expentary has increased worldwide: -1970: average was 54years -1992: up to 61 -2007: up to 66 • Significant decline in birth rate, • More women entering politics  Even more so at the grassroots and in social movement • More rights recognized in legislation ( both domestic and international So there are reasons for concerns:  Between 75 and 80 per cent of the world’s 27 million refugees are women and children  66% if illiterate adults are women;  Women hold 11.7 per cent of the seats in the world’s parliaments  Of the 185 highest-ranking diplomats to the UN, seven are women  Even in country where progressive land passed, often they are not enforced.  Need permission from spouses to work;  Every day, approximately 800 women die from presentable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.  Half million women die every year from preventable complication in pregnancy  In 2010, 287,000 women died * and following pregnancy and childbirth  99% if all maternal deaths occurs in developed countries  Material mortality is increased in woman living in rural areas and among poorer communities.  “Son preference” still wide spread: -Assuming son is much better than a daughter- a cultural practice in many societies- women can as a liability - “Raising a daughter is like watering your neighbours’ garden -practice of paying for daughter to get married into another family -In Canada- fathers of the bride expected to pay for the wedding Has created significant distortion in demographic terms: o For every 100 boys born 95 girls (average) o Many countries where son preference is the norm; the practice has distorted demographics  92 million women will be missing if normal treads developed  Modern tests such as ultrasound, others that reveals sex of child being used to which come into families, through abortions or infanticide o 35$ for an abortion, 3800$ fir a dowry II) Understanding gender Our gender us perhaps the single most determinate of who we become in life, o Opportunities available Ex.) Health care, jobs, politics Human are social beings o Social, as we need each other for mutual survival; live in groups and societies  Large and small  More of us its self-sufficient  That in itself does not distinguish us from other species o Cultural being- this us unique  Produce meaning of our environment, relations to another, produce ways of life we call Culture.  Means of communication such a language that enable us to come to shared understanding and to communicate with one another o Culture determines aspirations, values: Ex) water; meaning that could be ascribed are different; though physically it’s the same thing.  Need to survive  Baptism, use to purify sins  We are mostly made of water  Sources of energy- hydro  Food production sources  Commodity ( highly controversial) -Gender us is another thing are attach meaning to: o Sex –Biological difference -male and female o Gender is a cultural/ social meaning  Masculinity and feminist  Socially constructed difference prioritization of are over the other  Roles= behavioral expectation  Men and woman o These roles can act as “ scripts’ that we learn early in life about how we should behave:  Psychologies call this “socialization” ( about gender relations) - Gender relation change:  Overtime  From culture to culture;  Out view may not be the same as other societies and in ways could be worse. -Different meaning of gender III) Why is gender a development issues? - Development policies ARE NOT gender neutral  No matter how ‘apolitical’ or technical they might seen  They often affect men and women differently - So at least at the level of policy this must be kept in mind. Ex) Austerity measure out back of the last 20 years - Adopted by government to fiscal deficit o Cut to health care, education etc. - Need to ask are BOTH men and women affected by a policy? Ex) Close a day-care center to save money Ex) cut free meals/ subsidies for poor families. Another example: How the poor in the Global South cope with
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