Citizenship : Forms the idea of who belongs and who doesn’t, it is defined by the state. Citizens are
entitled to certain rights & privileges. Gendered, racialized, and classist thought decides who benefits
from citizenship and who is excluded.
Ex. In Razack’s article, the segregation of Indigenous persons to “the stroll” exemplifies exclusion from
the benefits of citizenship
Colonization : Foundational to construction of the Canadian nation-state. Processes of domination and
subordination are made naturalized and invisible. Colonization consists of 2 processes:
1. Material process – dispossession of land, spacial segregation
2. Symbolic process – creation of other who is lesser, process of subordination
Ex. In Ravensong the colonial history still affects them, it shapes their views on white people and
continues to act as an oppressive force.
Intersectionality : oppression by multiple identities, race, class gender etc. Multiple systems of
oppression can work together to create social inequality.
Ex. Violent acts against Pamela George were the result of the intersecting oppressions of gender, race
Nation-State: The fusing of identity (nation) and authority (state). Indigenous persons experience and
exclusion from both the nation and the state. The nation is a community of people who believe
themselves to be similar or connected by a common identity, residential schools were an attempt to
assimilate indigenous persons into the collective nation. Their exclusion from the state is exemplified by
government policies such as the Indian Act.
Ex. In Ravensong, the bridge is an allegorical representation of exclusion from the nation state and
segregation. The characters view their identity and whiteness to be separate, not a shared identity. In