GWST 2510 Section B 9.0 2013-14 Introduction to Gender and Women’s Studies - Professor Amar Wahab
Midterm Exam Review Sheet
a member of a state who owes allegiance to the government & entitled to rights & privileges in return‖ (Pettman)
- Must fit into normative ideals.
- Normative Citizenship as contract between men & state that ―established men‘s sex right to women‘s bodies &
Token Citizenship: gestures by the state to include women through liberal rights-based reforms that do not
necessarily question patriarchal-liberalism. Women as symbols of national culture.
boys fit ideal of normative boys benny had to give up indian status to help war.
- pamela didn't fit ideal - indians have to give up status to be seen as
- court felt more positively towards boys canadian, not true citizen / cannot hold onto
- patterns of inclusion and exclusion. roots.
- reserves are seen as the space of non citizens-
- boys are working, going to school so helping area of exclusion
government (so court backs them up) & included
- whereas prostitution doesn't help government so - Stacey is not a citizen as she does not fit ideal
ignored. created as a deserving victim - exclusion race, gender or occupation so thus is a non-
- pamela is not a visual citizen & does not fit ideal - judy (white) is closest association to true
race, gender or occupation so thus is a non-citizen citizenship except her sexuality is unnormative
- mainly based upon right of man and social contact based on men
- disposition of land, process of inclusion / exclusion of cultural life, not belonging, lesser than
- colonization was instrumental to whiteness & created materially through disposition of land & symbolically
through creation of other.
- whiteness rooted in colonization becomes the norm & invisible
- Western European scientific thinking about ―race‖ as the master discourse of colonization & nation-making.
- Discourse of ‗empty land‘ (erasure of Aboriginal presence)
- Dehumanization (othering) of those who occupied the land as ―uncivilized‖
- Justification for taking their lands (dispossession/theft)
- Displacement/relocation onto reserves & slums
Objectification and othering of Aboriginal women as the basis of sexual violence
- Settlers ―come to know themselves as entitled to the land‖ (razak) and entitled to colonized bodies
- sexual violence is used as a tool - how the village is spaced in relation to the white town, river is boundary
of domination. - stacey crosses the border of reserve into the white town as relationship
- pamela george seen as less than between the native ppl as colonized
human because she was in the - processes of colonization were made to seem invisible — by
space of aboriginal abnormality.
- transferring spaces she sees how colonization operated in white town &
boys entitled to full citizenship village.
so they were entitled to her bc - flu epidemic: boundaries were reinforced and white able to access
she was immoral and less human. proper health care
- she was in a white space so must - apprehensive of going to doctors as native people have been abused
work by white rules
- through institutions like this one.
continues to be dominated by the - 1 kind of knowledge/medicine as being proper kind
white sexually, verbally and - carol rep. white colonizers, indifferent to stacey
through her trial - carol expected stacey to sympathize for her, when she never had any
- her lack of citizenship is
sympathy for stacey in their influence and whiteness
1 GWST 2510 Section B 9.0 2013-14 Introduction to Gender and Women’s Studies - Professor Amar Wahab
Midterm Exam Review Sheet
demonstrated through the - stacey wanted to be part of carols family but was severely irritated by it
continued colonization instilled
in her reasoning towards the men - hooks article - how they want to be white but really dont want to be
- loses indian status if marry white (continued colonization impact ships
lack of fault in her trial btwn white & indian)
- whiteness as a system of power remains unquestioned
- social identity as the simultaneous interplay of race, gender, class, disability, sexuality, age, etc. i.e. ―we do not
live single issue lives.‖ (Lorde, 1984)
- not to think of only one binary, but to think about how all binaries relate to eachother (race - sexuality - gender)
- recognizing simultaneous oppressions
- intersectionality of ―race‖: discourses of ―race‖ mediate how we make sense of gender, class, sexuality,
dis/ability, national difference, etc. and vice versa.
- pamela george identity as an aboriginal women and raced gender - shelly marring white man and divorcing
be the reason why she was murder. him came to occupy the same space as
- white women would be treated similarly. pamela george and shows her position as
- both taken out of respective geographies. a native women in a settler society.
- - stacey and all reserve females lack of
men were able to border cross willingly without consequence by citizenship due to her race and sexuality
the courts making up her identity
- when examining the case, saw the men as just making a poor
decision - trying to join within one type of citizen
- race was unacknowledged with males compared to pamela. when multiple intersectionalities impact
ur inability to be accepted due to race,
- whiteness is focusing on other. gender, class, etc for both white entering
- the other always becomes hyper visible. reserves and vice versa hard to gain
- whiteness has invisibility.
- pamela had race, gender and occupation unnormalizing her
- state power rests on national identity (nation-state)
• common national identity
• common language;
common memory and forgetting;
• common future;
• common sense of its Others (Enloe, 222)
- The ideal nation-state presumes a tight fit between nation and state: ―If a state is a vertical creature of authority, a
nation is a horizontal creature of identity. The most stable political system is in which state power rests on a bed
of national identity: a ‗nation-state.‘‖ (Enloe, 222)
- ―The expression ‗nation-state‘ camouflages the only-partial overlap between the boundaries of the hegemonic
national collectivity and the settled residents or even citizens of the state.‖ (Yuval-Davis, 217)
- Ideas about gender were integral to formation of the modern liberal nation-state and its ways of ruling the nation.
- Regina Saskatchewan represents, like white - Madeline‘s (snakes wife) behaviour had violated roles
town, nation state of men and women within the village.
Pamela leaving reserves and participating in
2 GWST 2510 Section B 9.0 2013-14 Introduction to Gender and Women’s Studies - Professor Amar Wahab
Midterm Exam Review Sheet
prostitution goes against national identity - different patriarchies but still male decision
- she becomes their sense of its others
- - norah not to be chief bc female - Dominic instead.
the court further depicts the nation-state - how colonialism changed patriarchy and gender
ideals of commonality and power as the
court is ran by the state and continues to put relationships in the village
the men in the right (patriarchy) as they - male control but as seen in snake-different values that
represent the future of the nation and the weren't see as part of the village (influenced by white
ideal image (white, male) town)
- compared to pamela is the opposite of what
- ‗White town‘ represents the nation-state: naming
the nation hopes to see (non norm gender, whiteness as dominant system of knowledge and
race, occupation) practice
- space: suburb/city vs stroll/slum -
white town repressing colonial history (forgetting)
and continue othering the reserves together
- space: white town vs village
- a system that has historically privileged the dominance of men based on the subordination of women; recognizing
the invisibility of ‗men‘s‘ privilege.
As a system that is historical developed through domination privileging men (creating an inferior class of others
- Becomes defined through its oppression of women
the majority government and politic / social standing
- betty freidan - the problem that has no name (problem is patriarchy)
- Patriarchy as a racalized structure, white male patriarchy (western european)
Myth of Sameness: Masks dominance of white patriarchy & masculinity in determining status quo. [frankenberg]
- polices masculinity
- all men are under patriarchical gaze
- white canadian masculinity becomes dominant masculinity that polices femininity
- ranking of masculinities where one gets to police femininity and other masculinities
men showed their dominance through their - carol why u sad? - bc im catholic (divorce/mar