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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1502
Barbara Cameron

Cultures Languages and Nations conceptions and MisconceptionsKen McRoberts presents two competing approaches to responding to the linguistic duality and the cultural diversity of Canada in the assigned reading on Cultures Languages NationsConceptions and Misconceptions Explain the competing approaches and identify the ways they have been reflected in the various initiatives directed at formal constitutional amendmentbeginning with the Constitution Act 1982 Perspective 1 the one championed by much of Francophone QuebecDouble Compact theoryNation within a NationHeart of French CanadaDistinct societyBB advocated this perspective was largely forgottenMeech lake and Charlottown distinct societyThe fist approach is that has arisen in Quebec that envisions Canada is not a single nation but understands the dual reality of Canadas language and culture This view recognizes Quebec is the heart of French language and distinct Francophone culture A major part of the dialogue in Quebec of a dual compact theory the notion that confederation was a compact between 10 equal provinces that give the federal government the power to actAccording to this compact theory developed by Quebec judge TJJ Loranger the constitution could not be changed without the consent of all the successors to the original colonies the provincial governments This perspective is generally accepted not only in Quebec but in the rest of the provinces as well However French Canadian Henri Bourassa developed a new version of the compact theory of Canada with a second element a double compact He put forward the idea that confederation was political contract among colonies now provinces and a national contract of Angolphones and Francophones As a part of this perspective Quebec Fancophones see often see and have seen Quebec as a nation within a nation the heart of French Canada and a distinct societyThe perspective developed in Quebec that only in Quebec was there a Francophone majority and therefore the Quebec government spoke for French Canada The perspective is that Canada is bilingual with the French linguistic community rooted in Quebec and the English community rooted in English Canada The perspective that Quebec was bicultural also recognized that the heart of French Canadas distinct French society was rooted in Quebec and the heart of Canadas English distinct society was rooted in English Canada This approach sees Canada as having two dominant cultures embodied in distinct societies essentially that Canada has two nations or a nation within a nation There is the general perspective in Quebec within its jurisdictions it represented a nation whether it be the FrenchCanadian nation or the Quebec nationSince Confederation there was the idea in Quebec that it was a separate nationality and in the 1960s many Francophones in Quebec began to see their national identity as Quebecois not French Canadian
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