Study Guides (248,151)
Canada (121,346)
York University (10,192)
SOSC 1801 (17)
Midterm

Test Three Vocabulary.docx
Premium

6 Pages
182 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1801
Professor
Jon Johnson
Semester
Fall

Description
TEST THREE: TEXTBOOK VOCABULARY + DEFINITIONS MODULE 20 Learning: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others or through language Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviourism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Respondent behaviour: behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically – triggers a response Conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral, but now conditioned, stimulus Conditioned stimulus: an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Acquisition: when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response (in classical conditioning); the strengthening of a reinforced response (operant conditioning) Higher-order processing: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus MODULE 21 Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely Operant chamber: a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer (also known as a Skinner box) Reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows Shaping: procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers  any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli  any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus; it is unlearned Conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer): a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; learned association Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behaviour that it follows Operant behaviour: behaviour that operates on the environment, producing consequences MODULE 22 Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behaviour effectively for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behaviour to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishments Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so Prosocial behaviour: positive, constructive, helpful behaviour; opposite of antisocial MODULE 23 Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (fill- in-the-blank question) Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (multiple choice question) Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system Storage: the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sens
More Less

Related notes for SOSC 1801

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit