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Test Three Vocabulary.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1801
Jon Johnson

TEST THREE: TEXTBOOK VOCABULARY + DEFINITIONS MODULE 20 Learning: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others or through language Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviourism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour without reference to mental processes Respondent behaviour: behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically – triggers a response Conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral, but now conditioned, stimulus Conditioned stimulus: an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Acquisition: when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response (in classical conditioning); the strengthening of a reinforced response (operant conditioning) Higher-order processing: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus MODULE 21 Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely Operant chamber: a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer (also known as a Skinner box) Reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows Shaping: procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers  any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli  any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus; it is unlearned Conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer): a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; learned association Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behaviour that it follows Operant behaviour: behaviour that operates on the environment, producing consequences MODULE 22 Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behaviour effectively for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behaviour to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishments Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so Prosocial behaviour: positive, constructive, helpful behaviour; opposite of antisocial MODULE 23 Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (fill- in-the-blank question) Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (multiple choice question) Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system Storage: the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sens
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