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HREQ 1920 Final Exam Review.pdf

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Social Science
SOSC 1920
Elizabeth Brule

HREQ 1920 Final Exam Review
 Part I is based on concepts we have covered in the course. Eight concepts from the list below will appear on the exam, you must answer five. Each will be graded out of 5 points: 2 for the definition, 2 for stating the significance of the concept in terms of the text in which it is found and the wider context of the course, 1 pt for the identification of an author or text in which the concept was discussed. Note: You must use a different text or author for each concept. You must use full sentences in response to each concept. 
 1. *Good Hair: • Good Hair was a film produced by Chris Rock focusing on the social constructed north american standard for ‘good hair’. • Good hair in society is perceived as naturally straight hair • african american women must transform their hair through the use of chemicals and weaves to try and attempt to achieve this ideal. • ideal is modelled through Eurocentric females depicted in magazines and media as perfection. • women’s hair becomes part of her identity and must be kept up inorder to fulfil the female ideals and attract a male. This is achieve by using relaxers or paying hundreds of dollars for weaves, further advertised in the media. • In society black women are forced to try and appear whiter to fit western mentalities by adapting their hair to look like white straight hair. • This is significant as it furthers the discrimination in society as natural african american hair is looked as lesser, unkept and unprofessional impacting their opportunities as success later on in life unless they transform themselves to appear more ‘white’. It also contributes to the consumeristic society as barbers can get indian hair cheaper and sell it in weaves for hundreds of dollars which women must pay to be kept up or buy different types of weaves creating a multimillion dollar industry which african women pay into. 
 2. *Pretty Tough: • SherrieA. Inness, “Pretty Tough: The Cult of Femininity in Women’s Magazines,” [KIT] magazines are reinforcing the link between what is feminine and what women should aspire to be, ‘performing femininity’. Female toughness must be controlled as to not pose a threat to the cult of femininity that • women’s magazines reenforce. • Toughness is viewed as masculine • if depicted in media though leather it must be counteracted with extreme femininity displayed with lace / softness. • Magazines play an influential role in constructing gender roles and are able to recreate / reconstruct and communicate the manipulated culturally constructed ideal of feminine persona. • media plays with tough images of women, women’s magazines often use those images to affirm the desirability of femininity for women and to help maintain traditional gender divisions between man and women. • Toughness is associated with lack of femininity, tough girls are a threat to this capitalist edifice. • The significance is the media reflects back to us the dominant ideas and values of society porttraying the genders in their sterotypical ways, limiting human posibility. Instead we should promote different versions of womenhood and try to unmarginalize the female innominity. The culturally constructing ideals are only further emphasizing the social unacceptability and confinement females are placed within when dressing and depicting their feminity by society’s standards. 
 3. Cultural Capital (note solution): • Shelley Pacholok, “Gendered Strategies of the Self: Navigating Hierarchies and Contesting Masculinities,” pp. 255-273 [Reader] • the capital that is related to socioeconomic effects • references the cultural knowledge of the dominant hegemonic culture • Any advantage a person has gives them higher status in society - Higher knowledge, skill, education • Judging others to place yourself higher upon the hierarchical scale • Cultural capital can be gained • Hidden curriculum forms in order for people to preform and model the idealities to achieve cultural capital • Significance: cultural capital further divides equality of people. It helps a person to succeed easily or with great difficulty as the more capital have more likely you will prosper in society. Thus creating further cultural division. It also allows society to fall into stereotypical judgmental ways based on sex, race or age distinguishing ability to achieve success in society through cultural capital and judgments being a source of gaining or loosing such capital. 
 4. *Cult of Femininity: • SherrieA. Inness, “Pretty Tough: The Cult of Femininity in Women’s Magazines,” [KIT] • Asocial group to which all those born females can belong • Is a set of practices and beliefs: rites, rituals, sacrifices and cermonies whose periodic performance REAFFIRMS a common feminity and shared group membership • Performance and feminity are related • Perpetuate feminity as the ideal & norm for women - womenhood and feminity • women are socialised into the person and collective idenities through rites, rituals, etc • Sell commodoities that are ‘essential’in creation of feminitiy (reaffirmed through magazines) • It is not a choice, It is a natural state women must be want to be apart of • Depict a fantasy of womens feminity that is unachieveable but offered to buy within magazines • Magazines/media strengthen the link between what is feinine & what womens should aspire to • Toughness doesnt equate to femininity • Women outside of this cult are viewed as invisible • Significance: this cult is created by the dominant white heterosexual image that is found in the media and culture. It portrays sterotypes as the emotionally flexible female and limits human possiblity to create female ideals out of the cultural norm. It also continues creating a society dependent upon media / culturally influences to depict the appropriate way to present oneself. It forces females to idealizes an unrealistic goal / appeal and unifies all women in this castrating bond created by males. 
 5. *Riot Grrrls: Alison Jacques, “You Can Run but You Can’t Hide: The Incorporation of Riot Grrrl into • Mainstream Culture,” pp. 332-336 • Riot Grrrls emerged as an american based movement compromised of young female punks who were fed up with the overwhelming manless of punk rock, as well as feminists who were fed up with sexism in general • Mainly white, middle class, college educated and queer • Promote female empowerment, expression and girl love • Gives voice to many women who have traditionally been silenced RG was subject to incorporation despite its attempts to resist because to raise feminist • conscious on large scale you must interact with mainstream and subculture (but refused to be televised) • Media felt riot grrls should be seen and not heard Topics of discussion were sexual abuse, oppression and body image • • Try to influence other women to follow and make bands with important issues at hand • the word riot implies protest and aggression the word girl describes female childhood and is condescending when used to refer to a grown woman; the transformed word grrrl literally includes a growl that turns the sugar and spice connotations of girl upside down • Wore clothing with gender signs as well as politically loaded words on it (slut, rape, etc) • Significance: They project modernized feministic values to society in a form that could be recognized if they accepted mass media production. Also I feel they would receive more respectability and a larger audience if they varied in race, education and age to depict this kind of feminism and get a large response form entire populations. The group is significant though in the way they approach the issue of feminism and homosexuality in a musical form and speech starting clothing / lyrics to enforce a sometimes shocking message 
 6. Granny Masks: • Miya Narushima, “AGaggle of Raging Grannies: The Empowerment of Older Canadian Women through SocialActivism,” pp. 368-382. Community based activism upon social or economic injustice • • Ego-integrity to feel self acceptance in older age • generativity to guide next generation • Gero-transcend loving the world in a more spiritual way Grannies are predominately white, middle class, well educated grandmothers • • society thinks little of elderly & their community responsibility/involvement • Grannies face double jeopardy of ageism and sexism • mission: Earth, responsibility, children and grandchild, future, form the ragging grannies activism as symbolic extension of their roles as responsible and caring grandmothers who are concerned about the future of plant and posterity • desire to leave a better world for future generations (generativity) • older womens liberation movement--sending a strong feminist message about the oppression of women in a patriarchal system • Use the persona of little old sweet ladies to counter injustice • Mask 1: strategic humour and absurdity • Outrageous outfits • Songs lyrics of injustice match well known melodies • Dramatic acts get audience attention and message across • Use music and laughter to get responses • Mask 2: grannies act and creative self expression • Political satire gets public attention & women to express creativity in enjoyable ways Costume provide women with ragging grannies persona (put on a mask and clothing to fit • into character & transform oneself) • Grannies flamboyance provides playfulness and freedom when breaking down behaviour of middle class older women • Songs as political weapon • Convert fear, frustration and anger into drama, poetry and music for older women • Significance: These grannies are able to play into the culturally constructed ideals of grannies inorder to create activism and trust (using the society roles / stereotypes for their own gain). They use their double jeopardy of ageism and sexism to fight injustice. They also use a unified collective identity to help further their issues being expressed. To further their fight against in justice they must diversify their act to reach towards different generations & different mediums as well as beyond the white middle class location (interact w/ different races, ages, classes) 
 7. Cool Pose: • Richard Majors,“Cool Pose: Black Masculinity & Sports” [KIT] • Aset of expressive lifestyle behaviours developed and used by black men as a response to the limits that institutionalized racism places on black athletes and counter social oppression • These limits carve out alternative paths to achieving goal within dominate hegemonic masculinity • Survival strategy for black athletes as a cultural resistance to racism • Sports is a means of masculine self expression that is limited for black men • Cool pose represents human agency within structural constraints • “Cool pose” expressed by black males in sports as a [limited] means of countering social oppression / ‘racism’and expressing creativity. • ‘cool pose’is self defeating because it comes at the expense of educational advancement and other intellectual activities. • Sports deeply rooted in traditions of racial discrimination, reflection of racism in our society • it entrenches stereotypes about ‘blackness’& sports & physical ability vs intellectual ability▯ • Significance: shows how black males are oppressed in society and can only showcase their masculinity through specific socially accepted areas. It entrenches stereotype about blackness that they must hide behind this cool pose inorder to achieve any form of success. Although hegemonic masculinity is ultimately about males domination over women, it also depicts males domination over other males. ▯ 
 8. **Hypermasculinity: • Peter Tragos, "Monster Masculinity: Honey, I'll Be In The Garage Reasserting My Manhood." Journal of Popular Culture 42.3 (2009) [KIT]. • Exaggeration of male stereotypical behaviour • Fulfilling male hegemonic standards to the extreme depicting strength, aggression and sexuality • Becoming a ‘mans-man’ • Opposite of the meterosexual • Reclaiming notions of manhood • Popular culture as the medium through which men reassert their power and hypermasculinity posing females as sexual ornaments • Hyper-hetero masculine homilies (sex, gadgetry, beer, sports) evidence that sexism was back to avenge the emasculation of real men • TV shows and sports reaffirm this sexism and masculinity of the culturally created man • Such an elaborate demonstration to convince other men of their masculinity Traditional notions of masculinity where men are accepted by fellow men as they engage in the • definitive masculine pursuits (cars, motorcycles, girls, etc) • Assert their manhood through hypermasculine stars who too live in garages and allure outlaw lifestyles (cowboys) • Significance: Hypermasculinity retracts to old stereotypical gender roles as a way to emphasize masculinity or femininity. This prevents progress and acceptance towards different ways to express masculinity or femininity and joining in gender roles. Hypermasculinity also creates a more aggressive and violent male generation concerned with expressing masculinity in fear of rejection from their gender. This could be potentially harmful for society and can result in more wars and harsher conflict resolution. An extended demonstrated form of masculinity or femininity is never a positive decision as it emphasis extremities in the gender and disregards the joining of the positive characteristics of both femininity and masculinity ▯ 9. *Micro-inequalities: • Brenda Beagan, “Micro Inequities and Everyday Inequalities: ‘Race’, Gender, Sexuality, and Class in Medical School,” pp. 232-244 [Reader] • Microinequalities: inequities and discrimination at the everyday level, which when taken together lead to a climate where women and minorities generally feel unwelcome • Part of a systemic action / imbedded in the system • Ex.// youre so gay • They’re repetitive, rooted in cultural habits, habitual,taken for granted practices, mindless, made to seem normal, natural, acceptable • Micro inequalities based in gender, including gender exclusive language, absence of paternal leave policies, gender based illustrations in medical texts, sexist jokes in classed at school social events, male students being called doctor while women are not, women being mistaken for nurses, being called girls, being ignored by instructors • racial segregation in extracurricular actives • Everyday racism -- a form of racism distinctively structured in practices that infiltrate everyday life and become part of what is seen as normal by the dominant group, even in the context of formal commitment to equality • Subtle sexism--the unequal and harmful treatment of women that has been internalized as normal, natural or acceptable & reinforces boundaries between men and women • Hostile humor, isolation, diminishing, devaluation and discouragement tha
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