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Male and Female Exam outline .pdf

17 Pages

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1920
Elizabeth Brule

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Male and Female Mid-term Exam The mid-term exam will take place in class on Tuesday, November 26. There are two parts to the exam. ▯ Part I is based on concepts we have covered in the course. Eight concepts from the list below will appear on the exam, you must answer five. Each will be graded out of 5 points: 2 for the definition, 2 for stating the significance [what does it challenge or reinforce, what is its importance in the text of the course ] of the concept in terms of the text in which it is found and the wider context of the course, 1 pt for the identification of an author or text in which the concept was discussed. Note: You must use a different text or author (first and last) for each concept. You must use full sentences in response to each concept. • In order to get one point you need to have the entire title OR provide the authors first and last name! Spelling does not have to be correct as long as it sounds like the name • Won't get the same author twice! (Freud will only be on it once) • A lot of these concepts overlap many different articles. The key articles are the first articles listed in the category • Mainly draw on one article but if you feel one is not sufficient can use more than one • Can use what the article states the significance of the concept is or you can use your own using course content, stay in the text! • Significance implies why is this important, what are some of the implications, so what, who cares ▯ Part I (25 points) 1. Oedipus Complex • History of ideas on women by sigmund freud - p.10 • occurs between the ages of 3 and 5 • The child needs to separate from the caregiver (first love) in order to take on future gender identity. • Boys: castration anxiety •initially infatuated with his penis •Love objects as their mothers •Occasionally fantasizes of having his mother •Differentiates between his mom/sister and them not having a penis (recognizes sexual difference) Father is authority figure & shows fear • •Father has mother •Afraid father will castrate him for having desires for the mother •Boy gives up love for mother (represses them) •The boy sees the mother castrated and gives up fantasy for mother and begins to identify with the father ---DEVELOP GENDER IDENTITY & HETEROSEXUAL • Hope to grow up and marry, receiving another mother figure • His repression allows him to develop strong masculine personality Masculinity is always under threat -- always worried about castration • • Gender identity is a traumatic event • Girls: penis envy • Girls love their mother Realizes her and her mother don't have a penis • • Penis is superior to her vagina • Somehow girl feels robbed that she doesn't have a penis because her father has a penis and her father gets to sleep with her mother Hates her mother because her mother doesn't have a penis • • Believes her mother is responsible for cutting off her penis at some point • Causing her to reject the mother and develops unconscious sexual desire for the father Wants her father. (mediating her love….reassuring herself that one day she will • have a penis by giving birth to a baby boy) • Desire of penis turns to desire for baby • Accepts having no penis and begins to identify with the mother We can never fully resolve penis envy so women are immature and dependent • on men • Penis envy: desires the patriarchal power that men have ---men dominate society Significance: it demonstrates a heterosexual perspective on the development of • gender identity in a male dominated mentality (much like our male hegemonic society). It lumps our sexual orientation with our gender identity. Doesnt allow for a homosexuality thought process. It shows inequality based on genders aswell as male are more powerful and everyone must want a penis. 2. Transgender • Leslie Feinberg - transgender liberation (P.65) • an umbrella term to refer to all people who deviate from their assigned gender or the binary gender system, including intersex people, transsexuals, cross- dressers, transvestites, gender queers, drag kings, drag queens, two-spirit people, and others. The term can also be applied exclusively to people who live primarily as the gender "opposite" to that which they were assigned at birth. These people may sometimes prefer the term "transsexual." • Defy the man made boundaries • Gender: self-expression, not anatomy • Changing social concept • Genderphobia • Each gender must pass in order to live Today gender education teaches that women are feminine and men are masculine • • Today transgender is considered antisocial behaviour • Religion divided the people bc trying to prevent inevitable change • Transgendered people are oppressed all over the world • Industrial revolution forced all women (transgendered or not) to pass as men to get factory jobs---capitalism to escape the economic and social inequalities of their oppression • Capitalism demanded conformity to the system (transgendered dont conform) • Transgendered expression has always existed in the western hemisphere, the need to pass washed upon these shores with the arrival of capitalism • Transgender face discrimination regarding jobs to denial of health and home care • Significance: people of transgender identity face discrimination as they cannot fit into the male hegemonic society and fulfil their biological sex role. Due to capitalism and religion, transgendered people have been force to pass in society and become oppressed. They face inequality based on their chosen identity. They must ‘do’their gender inorder to pass and will always feel unequal based on the divided society. 3. Evolutionary Psychology • David M. Buss, “Psychological Sex Differences through Sexual Selection” p. 2-6 [Reader] • the field of study that studies and explains human psychology and mind as the result of evolutionary adaptation. Evolutionary psychology uses studies of animal behaviour to understand human psychology. • Evolutionary psychology predicts that males and females will be the same or similar in all those domains in which the sexes have faced the same or similar adaptive problems • Have faced similar and different adaptive problems--both look for food. Women - child birth. Men - unsure whos the father bc no proof • People who didnt solve the adaptive problems died off--darwin theory • Solve this issue through natural selection (which men can provide the most resources to the women to continue on) • Evolutionary psychologists predict that the sexes will differ in precisely those domains in which women and men have faced different sorts of adaptive problems • Likelihood that the sexes are psychologically identical in domains in which they have recurrently confronted different adaptive problems over the long expanse of human evolutionary history is 0 • What domains have women and men faced different adaptive problems • The sexdifferented psychological mechanisms of women and men that have evolved in response to these sex differentiated adaptive problems • Social, cultural and contextual inputs moderate the magnitude of expressed sex differences • Sexual selection - casual process of the evolution of characteristics on the basis of reproductive advantage (opposed to survival advantage) [ desirable physical or mental qualities] • Females more emotional, males more sexual • Sex differences occur in domains linked with sex and mating and lead to the adaptive problems men and women face over evolution • No sex is superior bc each posses mechanisms designed to deal with its own adaptive challenges Significance: through sexual selection we can see that evolutionary psychologists • see the human wanting to survive and implement this wanting when choosing mates. This is prevalent today through the class structure (rich with rich) and the inequality given through capitalism, reinforces this sexual selection theory. Picking a mate based on social constructs that can give you the best life. 4. Racialization of gender • Masculinity as homophobia by Michael Kimmel (p.29) • Racialized gender is a sociological concept that refers to the critical analysis of the simultaneous effects of race and gender processes on individuals, families, and communities. This concept recognises that women do not negotiate race and gender similarly. • Racialized gender concerns the study of the influence of socialization practices on the individual. Social environments such as the family, communities, and institutions provide the frame in which experience is interpreted and communicated and the self (e.g., identity) is defined in relation to difference. • American manhood is hegemonic Dominant culture masculinity is white, middle class, middle aged heterosexual • • So if youre not fitting that stereotype you will never fill your gender role. • The black were seen as slaves and dependent helpless men---not real men • Native americans -- foolish naive children---not full manhood New european immigrants (italians and irish)--too passionate and emotional to be • real men • Asians - soft and small--not manly • If you did not fit the strong, intelligent, educated white stereotype -- not a real man The ideal man is the minority and made that way so men cannot achieve it and must • strive the unattainable • These “not real men” then turned hyper-masculine in hopes to fulfil their roles • Significance: the ideal man is created to fit the minority of all the gender so that certain races cannot fill that role. This leads to other races becoming hypermasculine. This also leads to inequality amongst the genders and races as one may feel more superior to another. In a male hegemonic society everyone is trying to please this ideal male figure that no one can attain. 5. Performativity of gender • Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman, “Doing Gender” p.p. 28-41 [Reader]. • Sex: fixed biological, socially agreed upon by biological make up • Sex category: achieved by using characteristics that you receive through your sex (you can decide on you own which sex youd like to be categorized) / something distinctly a social act (not biological) realizes on everyday interaction (how you choose to display your sex in society) • Gender: managing their sex category through interaction and social structure (a social doing) • traits that are learned are part of social doings • How we show gender is through behaviour that is structured through interaction with other • Choose to act in whichever way we like showing different traits • About human interactions being portrayed gender by how they act • We learn these traits by acting them and doing them Contextualizes • • Gender role and gender display focus on behavioural aspects of being a woman or a man • However we believe gender role deals with work that is involved in producing gender in everyday activities • Notion of gender display relegates to the periphery of interactions • To ‘do’gender is to engage in behaviour at the risk of gender assessment • Doing gender means creating differences between girls and boys and women and men, differences that arent natural, essential or biological.---then used to reinforce the essentialness of gender • When you depict behaviour not of your gender, you are challenging the routine • Doing gender is unavoidable Practice doing our gender separates us and trains us to differentiate between the • genders • If we do gender appropriately, we simultaneously sustain, reproduce and render legitimate the institutional arrangements that are based on sex category. Significance: doing gender leads to filling your appropriate gender role based on • social implications. To fit your specific gender role people do their gender to the best of the their ability. This is seen in a male hegemonic society as males try to best do their gender role inorder to fulfil that role. This can lead to emphasized femininity aswell. It is using your sex and fulfilling your chosen sex category to the best of your ability to do your gender as seen appropriate by society. 6. ‘It Just Happens’Discourse • Melanie Beres, “It Just Happens’: Negotiating Casual Heterosexual Sex,” pp. 121 Negotiation of causal sex is dominated by discourses that privilege male sexual • desire • Casual sex viewed as something that just happens, beyond control of the partners • Women find spaces of power and agency within this discourse by disrupting the ‘coital imperative’and taking the typically ‘male’position within the discourse and actively seeking casual sex • The discourse of it just happens’reflects a sense that there is a force greater than and external to the two people involved in casual sex that is ultimately responsible for instigating the sex • More acceptable for women (and men?) to engage in casual sex • Good girl image ---casual sex as accidental • Most participants, especially women, expressed a sense that one thing led to another, rather than expressing an intent or interest in engaging in casual sex • If sex can just happen, he has no control over any potential consequences of the interaction and this results in a failure for men to take responsibility for their actions and potential for these actions to create harm • Discourse of it just happens create a version of casual sex where the illusion is that neither partner is responsible • By positioning themselves within discourse, women can then feel like good girls who do not actively seek sex; theyre not slutty. Men arent viewed as controlling or orchestrating the sex • The sex just happened; the men were not in control over what took place any more than the women Discourse of casual sex in heterosexual normative understanding is that sex just • happens • Significance: It just happens discourse is an excuse used by both genders to engage in casual sex without facing the repercussions. Both can receive sexual gratification by spontaneous acts. By posing it as an accident not reputations are harmed. It is an excuse and leads to no serious feelings or emotions occurring. This allows the man to fulfil his ‘manly’sexual unemotional role and fulfil their sex drive and females to fulfil their good girl image by it being an accident and with no serious intentions. 7. Five Sex Model • Anne Fausto-Sterling, “The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female are Not Enough” pp. 20-26 Male • • female • Intersex (some mixture of male and female characteristics): • hermaphrodites (one testis, one ovary)--herm male pseudohermaphrodites (have testes and some aspects of the female • genitalia but no ovary)---merm • female pseydohermaphrodites (have ovaries ad some aspects of the male genitalia but lack testes)---ferm through social practices or through the layers of cultural meaning, we learn or • become gendered subjects. Here the body is relevant to our gendered identities only in so far as it is given significance by the discourse (language), which we have available to make sense of ourselves. Biology would appear to not have fixed the subjective gender identity of the person. • • through the use of medical technology, which has allowed doctors to enforce a gender binary based on the alteration of intersexed individuals. • doctor’s typically base their assessment as to “assigning sex based on male genitals for active penetration and pleasure while female genitals are for passive penetration and reproduction: Men have sex, women have babies • such surgical interventions are based on presuppositions of what it means to be male or female based on a Western patriarchical heterosexist binary notion of masculinity and femininity. • Ppl wish to fit in both physically and psychologically---heterosexual is normal and one true model of psychological health Surgery done to help parents not feel miserable & child feel miserable of their • deformity • One accepts the assumption that in a sex divided culture, people can realize their greatest potential for happiness and productivity only if they are sure they belong to one of only two acknowledge sexes • Deeply connected to a two sex model --Anatomy refuses to conform to the two party system • Based on standard norm in culture Maintain a two party system, defying nature • • dont identify with their normative gender identity that fits that sex category • Significance: society only discusses a two sex model based on the majority of people being completely one or the other. Totally disregard any minorities and try to pert they dont exist. Based on the normative gender identity. The five sex categories help to distinguish how there are different sexes and not always completely one or the other. Because of this wester heterosexual binary notion of masculinity or femininity they must do gender of female or male as it is the norm. Doctors also take it upon their selves to fix this deformity at birth to try to prevent emotional scaring. 8. Masculinity as Homophobia • Michael Kimmel, “Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity” • Kimmel makes the point here that men become masculine by identifying with their oppressor. • Kimmel returns to Freud. the boy experiences a split vision, “he sees his father as his mother sees the father, with a combination of awe, wonder, terror, and desire”; the boy sees the father not as an object of desire, but as one to emulate. • he must repress these feelings-- Because homoerotic desire is cast as feminine desire, desire for other men. [Homophobia is the effort to suppress that desire, to purify all relationships with other men, with women, with children of its taint, and to ensure that no one could possibly ever mistake one for a homosexual.] • constantly re-enacted in every homosocial relationship (130) • American men constantly must prove to their fellow men that they are not sissies, not homosexuals (right, they must repudiate the homosexual within) • “any interest or pursuit which is identified as a feminine interest or pursuit becomes deeply suspect for men” • Kimmel argues that in less sexualized terms, we can see how the father is the first man who evaluates the boy’s masculine performance, the first pair of male eyes before whom he tries to prove himself -- eyes will follow him for the rest of his life and that other men’s eyes will join the father’s (teachers, bosses, peers and so on) • men believe that other men will always see their own inadequacies, “they will see that in our own eyes we are not who we are pretending to be. What we call masculinity is often a hedge against being revealed as a fraud, an exaggerated set of activities that keep others from seeing through us, and a frenzied effort to keep at bay those fears within ourselves” • Kimmel tells us that the real fear that men have is not the fear of women, “but of being ashamed or humiliated in front of other men, or being dominated by stronger men” the great secret ofAmerican manhood is: “we are afraid of other men”. • because homophobia is a central organizing principle of our cultural definition of manhood. • homophobia comes out of the depths of manhood: a label of ultimate contempt for anyone who seems sissy, untough, uncool • homophobia is the fear that other men will unmask us, emasculate us, reveal to us and the world that we do not measure up, that we are not real men. -men are afraid to let other men see that fear (because to admit fear is proof that they are not manly) men’s fear is their fear of humiliation • • violence is often the single most evident marker of manhood (132) • as adolescents, boys learn that their peers are a kind of gender police, constantly threatening to unmask them as feminine, as sissies. men’s efforts to maintain a manly front cover everything they do: what they • wear, how they talk; how they walk! Every mannerism, movement is coded gender language • homophobia, the fear of being perceived as gay, as not a real man, keeps men exaggerating all the traditional rules of masculinity, including sexual predation with women. Homophobia and sexism go hand in hand. • Significance: western society holds a high standard of an ideal man that only a minority can fulfil. This leads to men showing extensive amounts of masculinity to try to fill this unattainable role. This leads to them being sexist to try to prove to other men that they do not express any ‘feminine’characteristics. They try to outdo eachother in every form to express their masculinity and fulfil their socially constructed role. Displaying any characteristic than is not ‘manly’provides men fear of judgment and not being seen as a normal equal male in society. 9. Penis Envy • History of ideas on women by sigmund freud - p.10 • How an infant becomes a girl: neither the girl nor the mother has a penis; the girl is angry at the mother for this and identifies with the father. She must transform the wish for the penis with a wish for a baby. • Girls: penis envy • Girls love their mother Realizes her and her mother don't have a penis • • Penis is superior to her vagina • Somehow girl feels robbed that she doesn't have a penis because her father has a penis and her father gets to sleep with her mother Hates her mother because her mother doesn't have a penis • • Believes her mother is responsible for cutting off her penis at some point • Causing her to reject the mother and develops unconscious sexual desire for the father • Wants her father. (mediating her love….reassuring herself that one day she will have a penis by giving birth to a baby boy) • Desire of penis turns to desire for baby Accepts having no penis and begins to identify with the mother • • We can never fully resolve penis envy so women are immature and dependent on men • Penis envy: desires the patriarchal power that men have ---men dominate society • Significance: placed in a male hegemonic society. Women will always feel inferior as they cannot have their penis and must rely on men to fulfil their missing penis. Gives men all the power and automatically women are unequal from birth. Very male dominated perspective in a male dominated world. 10. Tough Guise • by jackson katz +Guise Metaphor of masculinity--not a fixed image or state of being but a mask, guise, • projection men often wear to shield their vulnerability and humility • Tough guise men put up based on an ext
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