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SOSC 1930 Chapter : SOSC 1930 Lecture : Health and Equity HREQ 1930 - Winter (COMPLETE WINTER TERM)

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Social Science
SOSC 1930
Yuka Nakamura

th Health and Equity January 6 Surveillance and Health Inequality - Ed Snowden o Worked for NSA and revealed various ways government uses technologies to survey everyone. (Phone, computer, etc.) - Jeremy Bentham o How do the guards survey prisoners (Panopticon) - Richard Nixon o Faced impeachment because of wiring rivals and surveying them. Keep tabs on everyone - Michel Foucault o Wrote book on prison system and variety of forms of surveillance - The Wire o Wiretapping, premise of show is officers keep track of enemies by hearing from a judge to wiretap a group. - Surveillance – timeless resource of collective life o Integral to safety, security and social order o Jane Jacobs – “Eyes on the street”  If the city has a public life (Hospitable, enjoyable) o Examples of everyday surveillance practices that are common knowledge  Store security (Cameras, sensors, guards (Undercover))  Home security remotely  Neighbourhood Watch  Airport Security  GPS - Surveillance is typically directed to identifying “suspicious behaviour” o Signals a threat o “Suspicious behaviour” is a collective resource o Suspicious behaviour is some notion of abnormality, deviating from ‘normal’ behaviour o Problem – Those that typically represent a threat precisely work at not raising any suspicions o Recall what friends and neighbours typically say about someone who is subsequently found out to have committed criminal acts o “Suspicious behaviour”, it appears, is not as effective a surveillance resource as it’s typically made out to be o Yet it continues to be employed as the basis for much of policing o And here, I want us to look at policing in its most routine form (the cop on the beat)  Cop on the beat: Cop with an area to survey o What can the police possibly mean by “suspicious behaviour” in a world where suspicious behaviour is often difficult to detect? o Is it that they are exceptionally highly trained at observing small nuances (think Sherlock Holmes here)? Handcuffed to intimidate and humiliate. - Same behaviour read differently based on skin colour. - Many argue this is what makes possible preventative policing vs reactive policing o Saying that blacks are a criminal population - Whites are stopped more than blacks o 1 arrest for every 9.5 blacks, 1 arrest for every 7.9 whites - Surveillance, as routinely practiced by the police and related security o Maintaining white privilege  Keeps certain populations in place and remind them when out of place - Surveillance says that you are a threat to our privilege, to our right to power and exploitation, and consequently, you have to be put back in your place. - Socio-politically, physically and geographically - Ghetto is both purgatory and refuge (Not surveilled but sucks) o Unseen, uncared for and ignored o The Wire vs Treme - Produces racially differentiated senses of the citizen - Arendt reminds us of the ways in which an attenuated citizenship renders one susceptible to a full range of abuse o If you undermine someone of their citizenship, you open them to violence - Similarly, as Ignatieff tells us, undermining someone’s humanity is also to render susceptible to abuse Assignment - Toronto police inquest mentally ill - Michael Eligon - Mental Illness and crisis - Reflect and discuss on issues that are raised Tutorial - Readings o Income inequality and how it is used as a SDH o Poor don’t have enough resources in order to live healthy o Different countries have different regimes on how to distribute resources Characteristics of neoliberalism and explain why neoliberalism policies are not good for the health of the population - Policies that are based on making money rather than helping the gross of the population - Takes away focus and concentration of helping the poor population - *Neoliberal policies support the businesses and markets and corporate o Less taxation to the corporates, corporates will come and create more jobs o Supports idea of larger income gap, income inequality affects health so it indirectly affects peoples health o Government focuses on people working and making money  When you have so much funding in social services, people don’t have motivation to be competitive in the market, market oriented  Competition in the market  Undermine unionization  Support part-time employment Examples of welfare states - Social democratic o Scandinavian countries  More socialism, more citizenship rights, more unionization, encourage participation of women in market, full employment and acting on common good  Political government formed by workers - Conservative / Corporate (Germany, France, Italy) o Employment status, more men employed than women o Insurance (Private  Social class) o Government funded health care (Class status) - Neoliberal o UK, US, Angloamerican Explain the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty and different ways in how they impact the population’s health. - Absolute poverty is lacking basic needs, relative poverty is being poor in comparison with others (psychological poverty, middle class comparing yourself to someone who is higher class than you) Health and Equity Jan 13 th Politics, Policy and Health - Relationship between Political Economy and health as facilitated by social and economic policies - Will compare 4 political regimes between 1945 – 1980 o Social democratic  Labour movement strong (and collaborative with other sectors and classes).  Capitalist classes somewhat fragmented  Governments supportive of labour mostly in power • Scandinavian countries • The ruling ideas are those of the ruling class o Victors write history  Characterized by • High union density • Full-employment policies • Universalistic social policies  High social security expenditures  High public employment in education, health services and welfare  Most extensive welfare states  Entire population covered by public medical care  Education  Family supportive services (child care and home care)  Facilitated women’s non-coercive participation in the labour force  Smaller household income inequalities  Lower poverty rates  Lower infant mortality rates  Conventional belief says that policies favoring income derived from capital and high-income groups are required to stimulate investment and economic growth  That is, inequalities are a requirement for growth  Argues that reduction of such inequalities is the precondition for economic efficiency and growth  Cultures of solidarity and opportunity o Christian democratic  Income derived from capital more pronounced than in social democratic societies  Tied to patriarchy  Effects women in negative ways – restricts how women are allowed to exercise a variety of options in life  Men benefit  Higher unemployment  Higher wage disparities  Lower redistribute effects of state intervention  Also underdeveloped social services (caring work), with burden falling to families, especially the women  Low female participation in labor force  Males are the main earners in families o Liberal  Labour particularly weak  Capitalist classes particularly strong  Governed by parties committed to rule of market forces and little state intervention  Social programmes are mesa-tested (only the very poor)  Welfare functions assigned to the private sector  Versus citizenship in social democracies  And workers’ rights in Christian democracies  Wages tend to be low (hence greater coercive participation of women in the labour force).  Wages disparities significant o Fascist  Class dictatorships (land-based ligarchy and other sectors of capital)  Authoritarianism  Undermined the democratic aspirations of the working class which was perceived as a threat • Spain • Pinoche in Chile • Argentina • Portugal • Italy  Characteristics: • Repressive • Regressive fiscal policies o Intensify inequality • Under-developed welfare states  Consequently • Weak labour • Strong capital • Large wage disparities • Small re-distributive effect of state  Little in the way of family services  Women relied on for care services  High poverty rates  High IMRs (Infant mortality rates) - Ideal types th Tutorial Jan 13 - What is the relationship between neoliberalism and social cohesion? o Higher income inequality lowered social cohesion which makes lower health o Neo-liberalism produces higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion o Rise of neo-liberalism and decline of welfare states  Lower welfare states = lower health status Test question - 8. Social democracy. Low income inequality = low health disparities. Good labour policies. Better economy - Liberal democracy. High income inequalities = high/increase health disparities - Neoliberalism doesn’t want welfare states to control their policies th January 20 Life Chances, Place and Health - Where you live affects life chances - “Site effects” (Bourdieu, location) - 5 aspects of neighbourhoods form the opportunity structure (Bernard et al) o Physical features that are shared by all residents, such as air quality or the presence of toxic products; o The presence of environments that support a healthful lifestyle at home, work and play; o Quality services for all segments of the population, including schools, libraries, transportation, and other close proximity services; o Sociocultural features reflecting the neighbourhood history and forming its social fabric; o And finally, the area’s reputation as displayed through the representations of the residents themselves and of other relevant actors o Provides incentive for policy makers (researchers and scholars) to push for remaking of these neighbourhoods o Regent Park  Yet this kind of remaking tends to result in displacement of the poor rather than improve their life chances o Problem with “where you live affects your life chances” argument is:  Makes it seem as if poverty caused by where one lives  Poor role models  Clustering of the poor is what causes neighbourhood decline o The idea of neighbourhood effects suggests that the demographic context of poor neighbourhoods instills ‘dysfunctional’ norms, values and behaviours into individuals and triggers a cycle of social pathology and poverty that few residents escape… o It implies that the residents of the so-called ghettos, barrios and slums are ultimately responsible for their own social and economic situation o However, the existing political economy produces a range of population types o The socio-economic structure o “A hostile entry-level labour market, the lack of a living wage or basic income, the absolute indignity of living in a stigmatized territory, the expansion of the penal fist of the state, the compassion fatigue displayed by civic institutions – the tragedy is that there are simply so many structural factors that condemn so many to poverty and social suffering” o Resources determine choice, including where it’s possible to live o Choice is the ultimate luxury good o Places that are themselves well-resourced versus under-resourced o This typically ensures continuity, for better or for worse o However, over time, a neighbourhood might change due to externalities o The life-cycle of Parkdale  People stay for amenities o Unfettered capitalism, directed exclusively to profit maximization, produces an underclass o Also, produces places where there is no market incentive to make hospitable o These places are left to deteriorate until they can be reimagined as lucrative o Attractive to the underclass because affordable o Capital disinvestment – many businesses that previously served the moderate- income class leave o Replaced, if at all, by businesses that serve the poor (pay-day loans; pawn shops; liquor stores; etc.) th Tutorial January 20 - Discussing race and mental health in relation to policing Lecture January 27 th Income Inequality, Social K and Mortality - Correlation between income inequality and mortality - In turn, level of social capital influence mortality rates - “Societies that permit large disparities in income to develop also tend to be the ones that underinvest in human capital (e.g., education), health care and other factors that promote health” - Social capital – features of social organization, such as civic participation, norms of reciprocity, and trust in others, that facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit - Increase in income inequality results in decline in social trust, which then decreases civic participation - Increase in income inequality  Decline in social capital  Increases mortality and morbidity - Church, school, political and sports groups; labour unions; professional or academic societies, and fraternal organizations - What’s the relationship between voting (voter turnout) and social capital? o High social capital = High voter turnout - Social capital tends to be in shorter supply amongst younger age groups and those with less than high school education - Like most types of public goods, social capital tends to under produced if left to the market - Social capital is a public good created as a by-product of civic engagement and mutual trust - Whereas economic capital and cultural capital tend to be private goods - Social capital is a public good created as a by-product of civic engagement and mutual trust - The strength of social capital as a public good is tied to its property of non-excludability - For community members, access to its benefits are unrestricted - High social capital potentially benefits everyone, even those who are unwilling or unable to be active in the life of the community - Comparable to the “herd effect” - Conversely, the stock of individual resources in a community cannot compensate for an absence of social capital Political Economy Perspective - Low taxation of individuals and businesses - Limited regulation of businesses (wages, environment,…) and individuals (Free speech, gun ownership, etc.) - Let market forces decide supply and demand th Tutorial January 27 Explain and define concept of social capital and what are the four ways in which social capital is generated in our community/society? Social Capital - the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively. Social capital – features of social organization, such as civic participation, norms of reciprocity, and trust in others, that facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit Decrease in gap of income inequality, more community bonding, bridging networks, mutual aid (funded through community not government) Give specific examples (Church volunteering) Trust, reciprocity, information, cooperation Please explain how high income inequality is related to the reduction in social capital? Please explain the relationship in social capital and mortality. rd Lecture Feb 3 - Economy needs labour power - There are pieces of economy that live hand to mouth, that’s what Cobern covers - Look at the reading and emphasized in reading - Sicko 45 min of it, health care system and united health care system - Where you chose to live is the ability in the opportunity you get Unnatural Causes: Is inequality making us sick: Becoming American - Immigrant health deteriorating when coming to US - Kenneth Square – Mushroom Farms – Mexicans migrate to work - Steve Larson Doctor worked with Mexican immigrants - Immigrant Latinos best health in county, lowest rates of all major killers (Poorest, most socially marginalized, better health than wealthiest segments of society) - Latino families very strong family ties - Immigrants bring culture, tradition and social networks, forming a shield around them and allow them to withstand negative impacts of American culture. - Social isolation on the rise in US, can kill - Social isolation chronically stressful - Family isn’t enough to protect from American influence - In America, wealth = health - Wealth gradient = health gradient o Very loose for immigrants - Discrimination, low paying jobs, bad schools and housing  Lower health, internalize devaluation - 2 generation losing hopefulness that parents had o Becoming more American - ¾ goes to basic expenses for family of 6 - Most people who start at a low income, don’t move up the income ladder - Immigrant children don’t have a lot of time with parents, because parents have to work a lot - If you live in the US, you become US - Both the older boys were forced to work because their parents aren’t making ends meet - Older
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