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SOSC 2460 (1)

Latin American Exam Review.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 2460
James Cypher

Latin American Exam Review The Green Revolution  Occurred between the 1940‘s and 1950s and increased agricultural production around the world  The GR began in Mexico o A renovation of agricultural practices o First research was conducted in Mexico o Developed new disease resistant high-yield varieties of rice o Do to the success of the GR in Mexico, its technologies spread world wide by the 1950s  The Rockefeller Foundation o Family had deep interests in Latin America o Oil reserves o Funded the Green Revolution  Gave grant for maize research  Did not want communism in Mexico, or else its investments would be hurt  Green revolution created ―miracle seeds‖ o Fertilizers, insecticides, cross breading o Very expensive Mexican government subsidized seeds and allowed for farmers to buy trucks  From exported to importer o From human food to animal food  From maize, rice, beans, to sorghum o In the 1970s, Mexico was not able to feed itself Conservation  The Atlantic Forest in Brazil was said to be needed to conserve by the Military in the 1960s and 1970s o Military tells peasants to migrate to the amazon  Lacandon Forest o Doing slash and burn agriculture o As the government starts to loose control of the communities in Lacandon, they start to say they need to conserve the land Favelas  Favelas is the term for shanty town that‘s are located in the urban areas of Brazil  The hillsides and the ravines became Brazil‘s famous Favelas Rocinha o The Brazilian elites demolished the slums in Rio  Did this to make the downtown look beautiful  1890-1910 o Homes were made out of whatever that could find  1950s mass migration of people from rural areas to urban centers  The Favela President to Drug Traffickers o President was never tied to a political party like they were in Mexico o Favela President was not tied to party, but supported them if they gave the favela something meaningful  Clientalism  Voted for them if they were given sewers, electricity etc.  The Favela President was not needed because of the drug traffickers  Drug Trafficking o Brazil is one of the transshipment points for drugs o The slums of Brazil became an important trafficking zone for cocaine o The drug traffickers controlled the Favela’s  No need for a Favela President anymore  The Parallel State o Keeping Favela violence in there o The legitimate state had very little imprint in what life was like in the favela o Drug traffickers controlled the favela o Drug traffickers would police the favela  Public safety and justice  This was because the Brazilian police force had retreated o Favelas viewed the Brazilian police force as corrupt  State Responses o Tried to cut violence for the Olympics o Built police stations right in the center of favelas Tlateolco  Located in Mexico City  Occurred in 1968  Massacre of university students who were participating in a peaceful protest  For months preceding the incident, protesters, most of them students, had been taking to the streets to bring the attention of the world to the repressive government, led by President Gustavo Diáz Ordaz. Some of their demands were autonomy for universities, the firing of the police chief, and the release of political prisoners  In July 1968, riots began to happen, and increasingly radicalization of the students  Students take over the campus o 500,000 students public protest, and months away from the Olympics o The rival police clear out all of these students  The President then sends in the national army to UNAM- the national autonomous University o Invasion of the National University o The army occupies the university o All of this signaled a crisis for the PRI  Oct, 2.1968 o Huge numbers of student organized a protest, to occupy the Plaza of the Three Cultures o The army quarantined the students and opened machine gun fire on the students  The students were not armed, and were peacefully protesting  5000 students were protesting, the students refuse to stop, and that is when machine gun fire occurs  700 students died  Student leaders were captured and sent to a military prison and trialed immediately  After, some students thought they had lost and accepted the PRI, while others lost hope  They then moved to the slums in groups of students, other went into the countryside and organized guerillas Lacandon Forest  The PRI‘s Developmental Project o The government wanted to modernize the agriculture, not protect indigenous land in Chiapas o Wanted to build hydro-electric dams to create energy o They discovered an enormous hydro-deposit in Chiapas  Oil and gas  Wanted to drill wells o By the 1970‘s the PRI has become an ally of land owners and PEMEX instead of indigenous  Religion is defending the indigenous, while the PRI is supporting capitalist development  Result: o Migration  No jobs in the fincas  Population growth  Migration to the US, and to some forest  The Lacandon Forest was were the indigenous people were to migrate too o Used the forest for the indigenous populations that lost their land, so it is where they went when they had no land o Became the center of the Zapatista movement  Christian based communities set of in the forest o Liberation theology Sub-Comondante Marcos  Spokesperson and the leaders of the EZLN o A Mexico rebel movement claiming to be fighting for the rights of indigenous peoples of Mexico  Marcos insist that the Zapatista struggles buddle up from below  He was radicalized by the Tlatelolco Massacre  He listens to the communities to figure out what they are all about (Marco)  EZLN emerged from the mountains  EZLN was not formed as a guerilla market, but a network of armed self defense with a massive social base o Also see this in Menchu  Organized to defend themselves, before they became revolutionary  Money was not spent on religious festivals, but for weapons on the black market  In 1992, the communities that decided to go to war, waited two years to go to war because it was to dangerous o Waited enough until they has enough weapons, and organization o January, 1, 1994 the EZLN make themselves known  Capture palaces  His real name is unknown The Bracero Program o (1942)  A formal legal agreement between the US and Mexican government to bring in Mexican to work in agricultural sector in the US, as the US mobilized for war with Japan  Workers promised minimal wage, safe working conditions  They have protection as they were documented workers  Legal exchange of migrants and labor  This was Mexican great effort to the war effort  The program was meant to be temporary o Contact workers, mostly working on farms  Millions of American men are returning from the Front from war, many people did not want to return back to the family farm o They returned with a new set of expectations  The Bracero Program was extended until 1964 o And understanding that they agricultural business depended on low wages from Mexico  The Program ended in 1964 because the US begins to enter into recession o Directs its focus on to the war in Vietnam o The big labor unions in the US begin to attack the Bracero Program, saying it is taking jobs away from Americans  Said they Mexican in the Bracero program were driving down wages for American o This also ends the period of legal documented, normal movements from Mexican to the US  Workers wont be guaranteed a minimal wage, and wont be promised safe working conditions, and wont be able to appeal for protection and aid  1.6 million Mexican entered into the US legally as contracted workers during the Bracero Program  After the 1960s, Mexican begin to enter into different areas of the economy Samuel Ruiz  Defender of the Mayan in southern Mexico o Indigenous in Chiapas  In the 1960-1970, creates a school for catechist o Including many young women  These people learn to read and write in Spanish, go out into the countryside and create Christen based communities, and go to the Lacandon Forest  Indigenous Congress of 1974 o No one comes to the congress o PRI goes to Ruiz to get people to come  He encourages his allies in the Chiapas to come to the congress  What happens is, students from 198, and other people who have been oppressed, the indigenous learn new forms of protest and create new allies with different groups  So the PRI failed  He was best known for his role as mediator in the conflict with Zapatista rebels,  Samuel Ruiz worked to build a fairer, more equal, more dignified Mexico without discrimination, where indigenous communities have a voice and where their rights are respected by all  Inspired by the liberation theology that swept the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1960s, he was an outspoken advocate for the rights of the indigenous Maya people of Chiapas, who are among Mexico's poorest and marginalized communities  Liberation theology o Created a new class of young, bilingual, literate group which formed together o Also, integrated huge numbers of women, especially young women into the struggle  New class of female leadership  Menchu in Guatemala Arizona Crossing  The most dangerous crossing point  Migrants have to cross through Arizona‘s harsh deserts and extreme heat  Little water  Many people die crossing this way The Atlantic Forest  Atlantic forest is now destroyed  Carbral- 1500 discovered Brazil o Encountered the indigenous Tupi people of the Atlantic forest of Brazil  Tupi would use slash and burn agriculture o The trees would provide fertilizer o Would grow their crops on the very fertile pieces of clear forest  Would provide huge yields for 4-6 years  Lived in communities of about 200 families  Lives in long houses o Once they exhausted the land, they would leave the site and burn down another piece of forest and start the process again  Moved in the cycles of agriculture exhaustion  When they Europeans came, they brought their slaves and many other farm animals o The Portuguese would set fire to huge pieces of land, use their axes o Introduced new crops such as sugar cane  Sugar cane would sterilize agriculture  When sugar cane depleted the soil, the Portuguese‘s would leave the land, but the land who be overrun by pigs and sheep o This depleted the Atlantic forest Coyotes  People smuggler  The coyotes is one that has been villianized  Mexican men who hire themselves out to lead these small groups of migrants into the US o Cost a large sum of money  Have a criminal reputation o But a complex figure  The coyotes makes more then the drug industry  Coyotes dress down like the migrants they are crossing with o The reason for this is because the migrants are brought back to Mexico, but if he is discovered he will go to prison for about eight years under federal law  2500 dollars it costs to charge o Hellman book  Coyotes specialize in different crossing methods o Riding trains o Fence crossing Bolsa Familia  A program created by Lula de Silva an the PT (Workers‘ Party)  This is a social welfare program  Lula had many promises when he came to office o Schooling o Higher wages o Health care  Lula prioritized poverty over the environment  Lula‘s Major achievements o Got control of inflation and paid back his debts o Came up with the program Bolsa Famila  It was an effect for the PT to create a patron client system  Lula was buying votes from the poor, but it wasn‘t working as many did not vote for him  Families got 70 dollars per month, they got it directly inserted in their accounts- the money went to the mothers, kept children in school and they saw doctors  Bolsa Famila was a cash payments  This program was successful at getting the money to the people it was supposed to go to  Massive boom in the Brazilian economy occurred  Job creation  Bolsa Família provides financial aid to poor Brazilian families; if they have children, families must ensure that the infants attend school and are vaccinated. The program attempts to both reduce short-term poverty by direct cash transfers and fight long-term poverty by increasing human capital among the poor through conditional cash transfers. It also works to give free education to children who cannot afford to go to school to show the importance of education  Contributing to poverty reduction in Brazil o 12 million families receive Bolsa Familia per month Oscar Romero  Connected to liberation theology  He was the bishop of the Catholic Church in El Salvador o Chosen because by the Vatican because he seemed conservative  He was a defender of the poor  In the 1970s, the Salvadoran church began to take liberation theology preferential option for the poor  He believed anticommunism itself was an unholy cause o Anticommunist death squads targeted priest and nuns who worked with the poor  He spoke out against the army  Best known for the voice of the voiceless  Right-winger politicians have accused him of inspiring leftist guerilla movements  Part of the Christian Based Communities  Nearly 40% of the land was owned by a tiny percentage of the population. The majority of ordinary people led impoverished and insecure lives. Groups of Christians formed to engage in study, worship and group discussion, aiming to follow the gospels and their implications for society.  These ‗Basic Communities‘ each had their own priest, and a leader elected from among the group. The landowners were alarmed at the sight of uneducated peasants choosing their own spokesmen and concerning themselves with social issues in the name of Christianity  Romero sided with the poor and vulnerable instead of the rich and powerful The Preferential Option for the Poor (1979) o We support the aspirations of laborers and peasants who wish to be treated as free responsible humans beings. They are called to share in the decisions that affect their lives and their future and we encourage all to improve themselves o The CEB were not only open to men and women, were being turned into Christian utopias o CEBs and liberation theologist were putting together their material goods CEBs- Christain Based Communities  Connected to Liberation Theology o 1950s-1990s in Latin America  Liberation Theology o As theory:  The unmasking of oppressive ideas and attitudes in both society and the church. Unique, came from rural, Latin American society. Break sense of fatalism—achieve Kingdom of God in this world.  Consciousness-raising: make rural peoples active agents of their own change o The CEBS  Began when a priest or a nun would arrive at a community and encourage community members to meet once a week to learn to read and write  This spoke to another social implications of liberation theology  CEBs became Christian based communities  Basic level of organization  Had a tremendous impact on class identity and also ethnic identity  Priest and nuns would set up the community, then leave and let them run the community themselves o Consciousness-raising: make rural peoples active agents of their own change  By learning to read and write, they could learn to read the bible themselves, and begin to share their own readings of the Bible  These readings of the bible saw Jesus as a revolutionary figure  Would not only discuss the bible, but also the issues that effected their lives (communal discussion of inequality)  This also helped the landowners to read contracts that were given for land owning, this way they could read the contracts  By learning to read and write, they could learn to read the bible themselves, and begin to share their own readings of the Bible  These readings of the bible saw Jesus as a revolutionary figure  Would not only discuss the bible, but also the issues that effected their lives (communal discussion of inequality)  This also helped the landowners to read contracts that were given for land owning, this way they could read the contracts  Power flows upward  The influence of liberation theology meant that discussions within the church were oriented toward material conditions and issues of class interests.  Connected to Rigoberta Menchu o Fought for there rights in the name of God o Menchú became politically active, inspired in part by her religious beliefs. Like many others in Central America, she was influenced by Liberation Theology, a movement that believes the Bible should be read through the eyes of the poor and that Jesus Christ had a special message of freedom for poor people Fair Trade Network  A network that connects small farmers, workers, and craftspeople in the south with organizations and consumers in the North through a system of fair trade rules and principles, including democratic organization, no exploitation of child labor, environmental stability, a minimum guaranteed price, and social premiums paid to producer communities to build community infrastructure  Seeks to address underdevelopment in the south by challenging the unequal terms of exchange for southern handicrafts and commodities  Offers a challenger to neoliberal globalization and view the growth of fair trade sales as a small but important victory in the struggle against market deregulation, social spending cuts, and the assault of labor rights imposed by neoliberal reformers  Bretton Woods Institutions o General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)  Established to achieve the reduction of trade barriers through a series of negotiated rounds  In the UN Conference on Trade and Development majority of the nations were in favor that wealth transferred from the north to south would be through aid, compensation and fairer trade o For attaining fairer trade it focused on two demands:  Southern nations wanted rich nations in the North to weaken their protectionist policies—tariffs, import controls, levies
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