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SOSC 2480 Midterm: POLS 3045 Midterm Review

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Social Science
SOSC 2480
Paul Idahosa

STUDY GUIDE Human Rights, Islamic Thought and Politics APHREQ 3800 6.0 Department of Equity Studies Faculty of Liberal Arts Professional Studies York University 1. Hanifs: a. Hanif, an Arabic designation for true monotheists (especially Ibrahim) who were not Jews, Christians, or worshipers of idols. There is no evidence that a true hanif cult existed in preIslamic Arabia, but there were certain individuals who, having repudiated the old gods, prepared the way for Islam but embraced neither Judaism nor Christianity. They are believers of one god. Their book, if any, predates the Quran. More importantly they were seen as the people who seemed to have had rejected believing in more than one god and retained some or all of the tenets of the religion of Abraham. This produced a significance because it produced the idea that Abrahamic monotheism, is the belief in a unique and final revelation by God to humankind, largely or wholly in textual form, and governing most or all of human conduct; thus the philosophies of a common Mediterranean world. Two cultures were indeed different in almost every aspect. The two cultures shared the same idea, due to the shared heritage of Abrahamic monotheism and Greek philosophy. But these were expressed within very difficult overall social and intellectual contexts and with very different meanings. 2. Umma: a. The word Umma refers to the people or community in Arabic, more specifically to Muslim people with a common ideology and culture. Umma is also said in the Quran by Allah referring to Muslims. It is more commonly used in Islamic countries. Muslim Umma refers to the unity of Muslims all over the world. The Muslim Umma is responsible for upholding the religion. After the death of the prophet, the Umma was responsible for selecting his successor (Refer to Khadduri). The whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion. When Muhammad and his followers forged a new Umma (People, nation), they brought into being at once a sense of Arab nationhood and a new kind of international community. For the first and only time in human history, the nation was transcended at the moment it was created. The new religion and its Law instilled a social identity that bound members together, carved them off from outsiders. A strong sense of belonging and a clearcut distinction between members and nonmembers were transposed onto the religious Umma. 3. Sharia: a. In Islam, (Sharia) law is closely intertwined with religion, and both are considered the expression of gods will and justice, but whereas the aim of religion is to define and determine goals, the function of law is to indicate the path (the term Sharia indeed bears this meaning) by virtue of which Gods justice and other goals are realized. The law provides no specific measure to distinguish between
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