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Development Exam

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 2800
Nga Dao

Development Exam Review Social Exclusion • There are four approaches to the understanding of poverty: • Social exclusion (SE) • Participatory Assessment (PA) • Social Exclusion (SE) is concerned with policies that eliminate discrimination and promote affirmative action on human rights grounds. • Social and political perspectives are central in SE, and issues of inequality and redistribution are necessarily involved • SE focuses on women, the ages, the handicapped and racial or ethnic minorities rather than on individuals • It highlights the precariousness of work, physical weaknesses, powerlessness, humiliation, psychological factors, and other issues not reflected in low incomes • For example, women may have adequate incomes and food but deprived as a result of excessive workloads, social subordination, and reduced life expectancy • Chapter 13 Participatory Assessment • There are four approaches to the understanding of poverty: • Social exclusion (SE) • Participatory Assessment (PA) • Participatory Assessment (PA): an approach concerned not so much with a way of conceptualizing poverty but with ways of getting people to participate themselves in decisions about what it means to be poor and bringing about sustainable livelihoods- Chapter 13 • Pioneered by Robert Chambers • Getting people to participate in decisions about what it means to be poor • PA involves a number of techniques such as social mapping, participatory diagramming, modeling and scoring, and public meetings that encourage active participation • PA is not so much a way of conceptualizing poverty and deprivation as a means of determining who should do the conceptualizing • Two aspects of poverty that emerge from participatory assessments that are not well captured in other methods concern risk and volatility of incomes: we come to understand poverty not just as a state of having little, but also being vulnerable to losing the little one has as a result of cultural disasters, epidemic violence or forced migration Loan Pushing  Banks or lending agencies encourage borrowers to take loans they do not need or cannot afford to pay back  International lending correlates to economic cycles: economic growth expands bank credit, leading to speculation, causing fraud and swindles (manias, bubbles, panic and crash) o At the end of mania, borrowers are faced with taking new loans simply to repay old ones  The 1970‘s saw a mania period with a sharp increase in loan pushing to developing countries  With the panic, lending suddenly stops, borrowers cannot repay, and they default  International development lending has two phases: o In the growth period lending can be profitable and promote productive investment and growth  Borrowing by developing nations can accelerate industrialization o But in the mania and loan-pushing phase, when bankers are high-pressure salesmen of money, poor countries take unproductive loans they cannot repay Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative  A 1996 arrangement between the Bretton Woods institutions and some large governments donors to cancel some of the debts of the poorest countries if they implemented structural adjustment programs o IMF and World Bank realized that that the poorest countries were not going to be able to repay their debts o The loans would have to be cancelled  Debt cancellation involved three groups of creditors o The Paris Club  Which comprises most bilateral government lenders o London Club  Banks and commercial creditors o IMF, WB and other development banks  The IMF and WB handled the negotiations and demanded that developing countries follow strict neoliberal structural programs  During the first two years there was no debt cancellation  Jubilee 2000, an international campaign launched in 2006, called for cancellation of the unplayable debt of the world poorest countries by the year 2000. The campaign was highly successful in three ways: o Turned into an easy campaign issue, instead of only being understood by economist o It joined together local debt campaigns in numerous countries in the North and South o It gained unexpected support—24 million people from 166 countries signed a petition  Debt cancellation could be increased from 55 billion to 100 billion  In 2006, debt initiative only reached 62 billion for only 30 countries Odious debt  Is defined as a loan given to a dictatorial or despotic regime that does not benefit the people of that country and which may be used to repress those who oppose the regimes. This type of debt is argued to not be an obligation for the nation. Rather it is seen as a personal debt of the regime and the successor regime should not be held accountable for the debt (i.e. should not be cancelled) o Example: Argentina or South Africa Material Features of Rurality  What determines rural from urban o Chapter 18 1. Relative abundance of natural capital a. Land, water, soil, tress, wildlife and other natural resources, and therefore a dependence on the unpredictable elements of the natural environment, including drought or the natural environment, including drought or flooding, pests, diseases and global climate change 2. Relative abundance of labor a. Is often structured and negotiated at the household level on the basis of gender and age 3. Relative isolation a. (Because of remoteness, internal distances or general lack of infrastructure) that translates into a relatively high cost of movement and relatively limited ability to participate in or influence national policies 4. Relative importance of social factors Integrated Approach  RD projects supported by the World Bank  Two paradigm shifts on rural development: a. Mid-1960s: New view on ―rationally‖ of smallholder peasant agriculture as a driving force for efficiency and productivity b. Late 1980s –early 1990s: new view; from top-down national to more ―participatory‖ rural development policies controlled at least by rural communities themselves  Attempted to revive and build on community development by incorporating the new ideas of small-farm efficiency, promoting balanced development strategies that would target all regions of a country rather than relying on urban and industrial growth as the engine of national development o The demise of community development approach fed into two constating stains of thought. The second thought was that its influence brought about renewed efforts to promote balanced rural development through even larger-scale integrated rural development projects, supported by multinational institutions  The comprehensive nature of IRD strategies also reflected free-market efforts to mirror the apparent successes that China was experiencing during the same period in improving overall production and consumption through rural collectivization  Criticism: o Top-down nature o Supply driven o Excessive reliance on technical assistance and on heavy non-sustainable, project-specific management structures Participatory Rural Appraisal  Robert Chambers (1983): proposed a conceptual framework that stresses putting farmers first and giving authority and control to local communities  PRA seeks to incorporate local communities in analyzing planning, and implementing their own development programs while changing experts attitudes towards local people  It grew out of out of holistic research traditions  The assumption is that top-down planning without the adequate involvement of the concerned stakeholders—particularly the local population, was one of the core reason of failure of previous approaches  The PRA paradigm seeks to incorporate local communities in analyzing, planning, and implementing their own development programs  The key to PRA is that experts change their attitudes towards local people: facilitators should act as convenors and catalysts without dominating local processes  One weakness is that is the inadequate ownership of the processes by government o To much has been devolved to isolated NGOs Carrying Capacity  The hypothetical maximum number of all species, including people, that can be supported with available resources and with a given level of human technology  Part of the Limits to Growth Debate o Argument is that unless rates of population growth, production, and consumption were quickly constrained, we would soon face catastrophe and collapse, and that carrying capacity would be exceeded  Developing countries believe they should not be held to the same environmental standards as the developed world, because during the time of the first world‘s development, they did not have to follow such strict environmental rules and regulations Food Security  Chapter 18  The ability (derived from land, labor, capital and/or political power) to meet food consumption needs either directly from farming, livestock keeping, fishing, or hunting or indirectly through purchase or trade o ―Food security is access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life‖ o Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life  Rural poverty is not explicitly acknowledged in the Millennium Development Goals, which therefore fail to recognize where the poor live and how they make their living, only indirectly addressing rural poverty through targets relating to food security, natural resources and the overall goal of halving poverty by 2015  To address food insecurity, it would be necessary not only to increase the supply of certain types of foods but also to get this food to food insecure areas (through investment in infrastructure and integrating markets) and to raise entitlements so that those in need could buy the food. This paper considers only the impact of investment on food supply.  Role of intra-household distribution of food o Giving the best food to the males of the household, and females get little food because they are not preferred  Factors Influencing Food Security o Supply  Productive assets  Food prices  Physical availability o Demand  Productive assets  Non-productive assets  Preferences  The Right to Food o Recognized as an international law  As many people are food insecure, they have to reply on food aid  To this end, the government has particularly encouraged export-oriented investments in order to boost foreign exchange earnings, to achieve food security through trade and ultimately to finance capital imports to start industrialization. Traditional Ecological Knowledge  Understanding of ecological systems, accumulated and held by local people and based on intimate experience with the resources upon which they have relied on to make their livings and that they have managed over long periods of time o Pg. 322  Many policy makers‘ feel that participatory approaches are a necessary part of achieving sustainable development goals for a number of reasons. o First, local users who directly depends on natural resources for their livelihoods have a direct stake in trying to protect environment from overexploitation o Second, local people usually have an intimate knowledge of their environment in which they live and in most bases live in communities that have been managing resources for generations  TEK can form an essential part of our understanding of ecosystems and help in planning for their protection  Also, as local residents live in close proximity to natural resources, residents can note changes in resource condition quicker and better then people working for government agencies  Part of participatory approaches Environmental Justice  Nothing calling for efforts to rectify the fact that the burdens of environmental degradation are disproportionately borne by less powerful groups, such as populations in the developing world, racial minorities, and poor populations within industrialized countries  The poor are often blamed for the environmental degradation to which they are actually have contributed to the least  Example: powerful interests groups in Thailand have been able to influence government policies, some of which include extensive logging and deforestation in the highlands, yet, the small populations of hill tribes who practice shifting cultivation are blamed for the problems of deforestation, mudslides and water shortages  World Bank: The poor will bear most of the costs of climate change for three reasons: o Large populations live in exposed sites and economically precarious conditions. o They rely on ecosystem services and natural capital in ‗climate-sensitive‘ areas. o They have a limited financial capacity to adapt to the impact of climate change Tragedy of the Commons  As introduced by Hardin, the over exploitation and resulting degradation of environmental resources as a result of individuals rationally pursuing person gain with resources that are held in common by a group of people or by all people, such as common pasture, the oceans and their resources, or the air we breathe o Classic essay written by Garret Hardin in 1968  Hardin argued that oceans, water systems, and rangelands are so often over exploited because these resources typically are those to which no one seems to have clearly defined property rights o Anyone who wishes ocean use them at will, and each individuals will try to extract the most value out of the resources until eventually it becomes degraded  The neoliberal solution to the tragedy of the commons has been the privatization of state and common lands o Privatization does not always serve the goals of sustainable development o With privatization, people can be denied access to resources which they previously used for basic daily survival Environmental Conflicts • Scarcity accelerates conflict between groups – political conflict becomes ‗ecologized‘ • Environmental problems become ‗politicized‘ when one group secures control over collective resources at the expense of another • Changes in environmental management or resource development have differential impacts. Water Grabbing  A situation where powerful actors are able to take control of, or reallocate to their own benefits, water resources already used by local communities or feeding aquatic ecosystems on which their livelihoods are based.  Prediction of ‗peak oil‘ and concerns about climate change;  Promotion of private investment (both foreign and domestic) by host national governments;  Water and energy privatization Peripheral Capitalism  A concept developed by dependency theorist, who argued that the capitalist world economy could be divided into core and peripheral regions. In the periphery, capitalism develops differently from the way it developed in core countries and is characterized and unjust than in currently developed countries  Peripheral Capitalism o A different form than capitalism in the core countries. o Characterized by external direction (from the core), lower levels of dynamism, greater exclusion and injustice  Pg.514, Feb- 11  China is not a threat to developed countries: rather than ‗catching-up‘ to them, China is just tomorrow‘s peripheral capitalism.  China has become the world‘s workshop for the benefit of capital and consumers in the developed world.  China‘s ‗market socialism‘ could be the first phase toward a socialist alternative.  Those in the core periphery are also known as the Triad o United States, European Union and Japan Green GDP  In China‘s context—Green GDP is: o Green GDP = GDP- the costs of natural resource consumption – the costs of environmental depletion  Traditional GDP does not elaborate impacts and degradation on the environment as a result of economic activities  The green gross domestic product (green GDP) is an index of economic growth with the environmental consequences of that growth factored in. Green GDP monetizes the loss of biodiversity, and accounts for costs caused by climate change  GDP does not take into account any environmental costs incurred during economic expansion and so creates a false impression of economic prosperity.  New green GDP assessment methods can help the government and public better grasp the real environmenta
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