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Study notes women and work midterm.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 3130
Jan Kainer

Study Notes Women and Work Gender Relations Women: - As a social construct - Femininity - Feminized or female occupations become obvious when we look at historical context - Ender relation can’t be excluded from the Home or Family - Glass Ceiling: An invisible form of job discrimination that prevents the promotion of large numbers of women to higher-paying and more prestigious jobs traditionally held by men. Underrepresentation of women in higher levels of business. - Re-structured gendered relations - Women and children = deskilled work to reduce pay - Men’s experienced therefore saw a degradation of their craft work because now women were doing it = become displaces (injured trades) - Domestic work - Regulation and resistance - Moral regulation - Ideology of purity - Motherhood - Purity and virtue lined to ideas of domesticity - Whiteness denoted purity - Moral reforms - Working girl and the threat she posed to gender ideology - Working girl 1. Women’s reproductive health 2. moral Purity 3. Women’s feminine attributes would be damaged - Sex typed jobs: Gender divisions + Class divisions + race - Conventional images of women’s work: House work, food preparation, child care, clerical, sex - Masculine work associated with strength: Physical endurance, mechanical ability, leadership Male Breadwinner Ideology - Links women’s relationship to the home and home-work - Hegemonic masculinity pg 50/52 of reading (diagram) - Women’s relationship being centralized as home-work - the most important shift is what is considered and the definition of men vs women work = males become bread winners which results in women become devalued and dependant on men - Male Bread Winner Model: transformation of production = capitalism = shifts of factory systems. - Capitalism forced gender segregated work, this created competition for achieving wealth. - Primary Bread Winner - Women who earned more than their husbands felt guilty that they were the breadwinners - Women still remained to their gender roles - Gender ideology informs work patters outside of the labor market/ household. - Larger amount of jobs are insecure (temporary, low wage, no benefits). - Women often seek part tie jobs to balance domestic responsibilities and still get income - THE ISSUE OF CHOICE is conflicting ( where women choose where they want to work) - Part time workers: lost promotion, loose full time income, loose power over decision making. - Fewer couples are having children - Gender Segregation - Segregates the workforce - Production= Paid labour force (male dominated) - Reproduction = Unpaid work within the hme and family (where women are often defined) - Concepts we need to understand to map the historical and current economic context of women in work 1. Gender differences 2. Race/ethnicity 3. Class - Intersectionality: The way in which systems of oppression overlap with one another - Relations of power and how they overlap, oppression and privilege. - Patriarchal Order: 1. Colonization: Turned women’s roles intro producers 2. Women’s contributations narrowed with economic contexts: House hold contributions over time became devalued; within industrialism developed a strong gender ideology (domesticity) keeping women in the home - Mechanization: Rise of commodity production > rise in factory labour > meant rise in technological tools = mechanization - Re-structured gender relations: Women and children = deskilled work at reduced pay - Men’s experienced therefore saw a degradation of “their craft work” because now women were doing it became displaced (injured trades) - European: - Aboriginals believed in equality and mutuality - Gender diverse/horizontal/ egalitarian - Colonists believed they had rights over aboriginal lands, so they took over and changed ideologies of work - Women became dependant - This created expectations and gender relations - Work of women and children became necessary - Relationship between gender race and class: -is significant to everything.. neoliberalism vs capitalism, clerk work vs nurses Hegemony: analyses power relation amongst social classes of society. Hegemonic masculinity: explains how and why men maintain dominant societal roles over women and other gender identities. - Gottfried examines who does work and what work is done while looking at work and economy. Horizontal jobs: - masculine jobs are more highly valued then women’s jobs - very long historical pre industrial times where masculine jobs are higher valued - service work is not seen as productive - service/caring jobs are devalued compared to production jobs - BLUE COLLARD work is higher because men are unionized (related to factory work) - men promoted to managerial positions Vertical Segregation: - devaluation of service/ core work - Despite equal work and equal pay does not work = gender inequality - hose work is almost completely devalued in society - sexism continues in the workplace. - men and women working different occupations and different occupation of power. - Think of a pyramid .. Top part of pyramid is men with power ( blue collar jobs) and the bottom is women . - White Collar jobs: Teaching, Nursing, Secretary Industrial Revolution: - women work was valued ( reproductive homework) - transformed family, changed family economy = paid/ un paid work - Industrialism: Women’s contributions narrowed with economic context house hold contributions over time, became devalued within industrialism developed a strong ideology keeping women in the home - Mechanizations Development of factory economy 1880-1930s - patriarchy structure of work and economy - men are seen as managers and women are slave workers - women had no right of owning property - Late nineteenth century – Early twentieth century - Women had zero rights in the world place - Family economy - House-work - Stoves, cult of domesticity: New evolution of household technology - Women responsible for domestic work, men responsible for supporting the family - Low wages, Poor working conditions, and inequalities - Children also working in factories - Families lived in Rural communities before industrial age - Families moved to the city, to earn more income - Small living conditions - Poorly ventilated, - Bathing done in sinks, heated baths needed to be prepared (long process) - Engaged in the sewing, textile industries - Women paid very little for take-home work After the war - Private enters public sphere - Shift in the family structure - Women’s dependence on family life: judgment in the public sphere as workers - Universal social programs - Men returned to work after the war - Family allowance encouraged women to stay home -
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