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SOSC 3600 (1)

Psychology 1010 Test 2 Exam Review.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 3600
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology 1010 Test 2 Exam Review Definitions Module 20 Learningprocess of acquiring new and enduring information or behaviors Associative learninglearning that certain events occur together The events may be two stimuli classical conditioning or a response and its consequence operant conditioning Stimulusany event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learningacquisition of mental information whether by observing events by watching others or through language Classical conditioninglearning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviorismview that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most psychologists today agree with agree with 1 Respondent behaviorbehavior that occurs as an automatic response to stimulus Neutral stimulus NSin classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioningUnconditioned response URin classical conditioning an unlearned naturally occurring response such as salivation to an unconditioned stimulus US such as food to mouth Unconditioned stimulus USin classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionallynaturally and automaticallytriggers a response UR Conditioned response CRin classical conditioning a learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus CS Conditioned stimulus CSin classical conditioning an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus US comes to trigger a conditioned response CR Acquisitionin classical conditioning the initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response In operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced responseHigherorder conditioninga procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second often weaker conditioned stimulus For example an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone Also called secondorder conditioning Extinctionthe diminishing of a conditioned response occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditional stimulus US does not follow a conditioned stimulus CS occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous recoverythe reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response Generalizationthe tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discriminationin classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Module 21 Operant conditioninga type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effectThorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likelyOperant chamberin operant conditioning research a chamber also known as a skinner box containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcementin operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shapingan operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Positive reinforcementincreasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented afre a response strengthens the response Negative reinforcementincreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response Note negative reinforcement is not punishment Primary reinforceran innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned reinforcera stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer also known as a secondary reinforcer Reinforcement schedulea pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Continuous reinforcementreinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
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