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SOCI 1010 FINAL EXAM REVIEW.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 1010
Professor
Robert Kenedy
Semester
Winter

Description
SOCI 1010- Final Exam Review Bureaucracy and the Iron Cage:  Rationality dominant way of thinking according to Weber  All of our relationships are based on rationality  Capitalism encouraged rational thinking  Rationality replaced critical thinking  We help people for our own benefits Social Stratification:  Hierarchy and separation within Capitalism  About inequalities/uneven playing field  Weber believes class separates us, as well as power and status  Pope is something with high status not a lot of money  Status doesn’t always have to do with money  Status can have more influence than class Conspicuious Consumption  Veblen  Has to do with what you consume  Vertical Mosaic Bourdieu:  Taste and consumption  High class have wine/small portions  Low class eats fast foot/ Buffets/ Larger portions  Cultural Capital- family upbringing/Education  Habitus- set of dispositions Marx- Development and Production:  What you do for a living defines how you…  Bourgeois v.s proletariat  Collective conscious False Consciousness V.s. Hegemony:  We don’t think critically  False consciousness- production  Hegemony – based on more culture  We participate in Hegemonic citations on a daily basis  Hegemony clearly linked to Capitalism  Casinos are Hegemonic  Hegemony is a lack of awareness Milgram and Zimbardo Studies:  Genocide  Eugenics- getting rid of people who are “defective”  Science and Natural Selection Deviance and Crime  Deviance- breaking a norm  Mainly about regulation  Crime- breaking a law  Theorist of crime  Deviance and stigma Sex, Gender, Sexuality:  Gender is not fixed, could vary  Performativity  Depends on what the audience expects  Standpoint theory  Intersubjectivity  Mutual recognition Sociology of the family:  Marriage  Women balance work/ family  Men aren’t doing well, loyal, children, housework  Nuclear families/ traditional nuclear families  5 functions of family  Warrant nuclear family  Socialist/Feminist  Patriarchy- women paid less for same work  Women extra work- devalued  France different view on materiality leave Media, Technology, Internet:  Media and technology are very hegemonic  All about entertainment  Disney almost all about entertainment Orwell and Huxley:  Orwell- truth gets lost feared who concealed truth, Big Brother Concept  Marshall Macluen revolution of Print Media Scientific Methods:  Statistics  Rationality  Question Research  Unethical Research  Research Biases  Variety and Reliaiblity Lecture 14: Sociological Theories  Hegemony is so powerful that we naturalize it  We do things without thinking  Can occur though socialization  We do participate in our own demise Capitalism is Hegemonic it takes rebellion and sells it back to you Theory and Research:  Theory has to be seen through the point of view of looking at the actual facts  Structural or  It organizes things and see what its importance is  Systemic view  Research  It tests the ideas (applies them) to see if it is actually true  Through research we develop theory  Functionalism  Conflict Theory  Symbolic Interactionism  Feminism Structural Functionalism  Durkheim and Weber  Idea of treating our society as a functional system  How do all of these institutions work together and how they work in different systems  Macro-theory  Social entitles views as “organism”  Should be more about co-operation but you need conflicts to help society function Symbolic Interactionism  Micro-theory  Focuses on the social interaction and the effect of the “other” Feminist Theory  Examines gender relations and inequalities  The idea of all the structural issues we deal with  Gendered stereotypes- we have been going a long time and creates less structural issues with society Conflict Theory  Macro-theory  Class struggles and conflicts within production  The Communist Manifesto is about this Sociological Theory (Karl Marx) Marxist Analysis (1818-1883)  Your ideas come from your material conditions ( like work)  Development and production  Marx= opposite of Durkheim  no integration, Capitalism is full of inequalities  Class conflict  Consciousness came from your material conditions- defined you in terms of class (where you lived and what you owned) Marx and Society  Historical Materialism: material aspects of economics and social changes  Production system- relations of production  Hunter and gathering societies:  little to no ownership, semi/fully nomadic, there were territories but it wasn’t owned; rather it was owned communally, if you hunted/gathered well you sustained yourself, less inequalities  Agriculture: - Semi nomadic/ sedentary - People owned lad and you worked for them= ownership= seed of destruction - Ownership= inequalities through material conditions and this formed the way you thought about the world around you  Industrial Production - Industrial production- private production, exploited labourers- caused conflict - This occurred through trade unions - We get out notions through productions/material conditions Marx and Material Conditions  Material conditions influencing us and our social structures  Our consciousness comes from seeing our material conditions Base and Super Structure  Base: Economic system of a given society  Super Structure: Institutions or values of a given society - Capitalism comes from the base and creates ideologies of the super structure (school system sets up ideologically and produces workers= repopulating the base through this) - Ideological institutions that feed back into the base - Capitalism- the accumulation of capital - The base: capitalism/ systems of production= and that creates the super structure Ideology  System of logically coherent and applicable sociopolitical beliefs  Ideologically maintaining the superstructure Alienation  As a result of being alienated the worker would become aware of their alienation and rebel against capitalism  Hoping to make individuals see that they’re being alienated  Four types of alienation 1. Alienation: Estrangement from others:  The production line- isolated and alienated from others is because you don’t care about them and also competitive  Separated from someone because they are also far down the assembly line  In terms of industrial production (i.e. artisans) 2. Alienation: As a result alienation from self or species being  You are alienated from using your creativity  Cannot express self creatively  Comparison to animals; we work to survive  Mass produced and is usually low in quality 3. Alienation from the product of their labour  The product acts on you because you don’t get any profits from the product the rich get richer and the poor get poorer  Products become commoditized 4. Alienation from the productive activity  You do not make any decisions regarding productive activity  You do not control the labour process= the machines are what creates its rhythms  Less people and more machines Commodity Fetishism  Products of human labour appeals as independent from people who have created them  We fetishized religious objects- we value them  There are also sexualized fetishes  When you overvalue the object and forget about the person who produces it  Under what conditions did they produce it?  Relations of production becomes invisible  Ahistorical Lecture 15: Changing Definitions  Structural influences= helps with understanding evidence of alienation  Hegemony and ideology  The structure can have a negative impact on us  It gets us to do things that we wouldn’t normally do  An ongoing problem  Always changing definition on deviance and crime  We don’t seem to use the ethnic al concept of crime  There are ideological problems with these things  Smoking The Seriousness of Deviance and Crime  The seriousness of a deviant and criminal act depends on the severity of the societal response to them  Consensus crime: wearing samurai hairstyle in Medieval Japan but were not an actual samurai = severe crime- impersonation  The types of deviance and crime depends on the evaluation of social harm 1. Consensus 2. Agreement (Durkheim) (understandings do vary) The Variability of Deviance and Crime  Definitions of deviance and crime are historically and culturally variable - Historically and culturally ideological Deviance and Stigma  Goffman’s type of stigmas 1. Abominations of the body= physical “deformity”= physically visible 2. Blemishes of the individual= blemish of character= weak, unnatural, suicide, prison, transsexual, gay etc. A stigma because there is something amidst 3. Tribal stigma of race, nation and religion 4. Goffman distinguished between:  Discredited= someone knows about your stigma (power)  Discreditable= potential stigma (drug use, mental illness, unknown) (power takes away from your stigma) = people in power could hide their discredited stigma  Identity management: discrepancies between virtual and actual identity  The social response is what matters (mutually constructed normality.)  Goffman (1963) wrote that a person becomes stigmatized when… Power, Deviance, and Crime  Power is the key element in defining deviance and crime Theories of Crime  Motivational theories: sub-cultural theory= dependent on the other  Emphasizes the importance of groups  How groups influence to commit crimes A. if people were around with criminal activity B. Techniques of neutralization (deviance?) = normalizes it within groups C. If there is strong internal conformity then you may end up committing the crime  “you’re either with us or against us”  Motivational theories - Learning Theory (involves socialization/ how you are socialized) - Differential Association - Focuses on the fact that the crimes become regular and it becomes a business - We learn different types of behaviour - Based on who you decided who you associate yourself with  Constraint Theories - Labelling Theory: (providing a master status) - Following the master status begins the self-fulfilling prophecy - Public deviant identity - Control Theories (regulation) (Durkheim) - Is about social control and regulation a. Unmanageable people= social attachment issues, how integrated are b. How many legitimate opportunities= education/jobs c. How many involvements in organizations/groups do you have d. How much do you believe in the moral/religious values that society has (belief system)- higher integration= less criminal  Conflict Theories - Maintain that the rich and powerful impose deviant labels on the less powerful - Only property damage/ theft= problems in capitalism Crime and Power  Corporate crime: external factors such as capitalism and profits  Elite justice  Internal control and individual aspects  Business ethics=oxymoron  Overall view  Internal: want to teach students, the push of business ethnics, internal understanding of ethics  Externally  Shift in corporate crime/citizenship  Crime has been broadened globally- global responsibility Lecture 16: Sex, Gender Roles and Sexuality  How sex and gender is performative and isn’t always accepted  Sexuality has history for being criminalized  There is a hegemonic (participating in our own demise/ and through consent accepting various sexualities) and counter hegemonic approaches and challenges  Sexuality (feminist movements, sexual revolution, included various types of sexualities) performative aspect is opening up sexuality, sexuality is performative and it is not fixed, the audience= very important (Goffman) Sex, Gender, Gender Identity, Gender Roles  Sex= biological, reproductive capabilities, anatomically capability fixed in some ways (but not all ways)  Gender= socially created based on masculinity and femininity  Gender identity= a person determines this based on self or other  Gender roles= how you are socialized in terms of expectations, there are socialized roles and you can flip them around  Counter-hegemony= you can be an agent you can decide your gender roles Bodies and Gender  Body satisfaction is about performance in a sense Questioning Gender and Gendered Bodies  What is sex? How many sex are there?  What is gender  How many genders are there (probably about 8) 1. Masculine 2. Feminine 3. Bisexual 4. Metrosexual 5. Homosexual  Valuable and isn’t fixed Gendered Bodies  Doing Gender  Gender is a routine accomplished in everyday interaction there are no fixed categories of gender and depends on the situation Goffman Feminism and “Doing Gender”  Goffman’s idea that gender is a socially scripted dramatization  Gender is perfomative= whatever your peer group/ parental group is willing to accept There are limits towards acceptability A Brief History of Feminism  18 century Capitalism changes gender relationships  Gendered division of labour (split= private/public sphere) (women=regulated)  Different spheres  Feminism didn’t have a significant effect on Industrial Revolution  First Wave Feminism (1850s-1950s) - Political rights (right to vote) - WW1 and WW2- i
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