Thursday, November 29 , 2012
Sociology Mid-Term Exam Review
SOCI 1010 – Introduction to Sociology
Study sheet 1010E mid term test
T/F -10 Questions
Multiple Choice – 34 – includes 4 bonus questions.
Application of Theoretical approaches to aging through the life course – explanatory, descriptive,
Gaybonics: Terms or slang used to associate homosexual culture, symbols, and communication. Used as
an empowerment strategy. But also can be seen to but homosexuals in an unfavorable light.
- Growing acceptance of homosexuals (still many against).
- Queer culture is mostly youth orientated (growing changes seen in their generation, are the
- Senior GLBT have “crisis competence” (Self sufficiency being forced to go through a society ill-
accepted of them has made them very capable and managing high stress predicaments).
Dependency ratio: The number of societal members who are under 18 or 65 and over compared to the
number of people who are between 18 and 64 (the number of societal dependents).
Age grading: The assignment of roles given to chronological ages. Varies from place to place and culture
to culture, differential treatments based on this assignment. In Canada, being young and youthful is
- Ageism: The belief that age is associated with certain psychological, behavioral, or
- Legal status. The differential treatment of a “minor” and an “adult”.
- Child (0 – 17): Subdivided into infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Mostly a dependent age
group. Some are able to contribute to society, but there is growing complacency. Expected
to adequately prepare themselves for societal contribution.
- Adult (18 – 64): Subdivided into young adulthood, adulthood, and middle age. Primary
contributors to society. Expected to enter the work force, contribute, and provide for those
close to them.
- Elderly (65+): Divided into young-old, old, and old-old. Reverting back into a dependency
class, but some still contribute on some level. Usually looked down upon, seen as a burden at times (may be out of fear or contempt). Women are usually more social devaluated more
“Sandwich generation”: People that are Emotionally and economically responsible for both young and
children and aging parents.
Various methods used to measure crime:
-----------------------Canadian Uniform Crime Victim Surveys: Self Reports:
--- Reports (UCR):
Strengths - Provides a - Provides first - Able to gain first
structured and person person perspective to
uniform perspective about both offenders
approach to on the and victims.
recording crime. victims of - Able to reach a wide
- Easy to read, criminal variety of people
interpret, and activity. (throughout classes,
digest. - Reaches wide race, gender,
- Easily accessible. variety of culture).
- Separates and people - Helps to Flesh out
organizes crime - Able to take statistics on smaller
statistics well as into account or minor crimes
to what offences people who which may go
are committed may have unnoticed/unreporte
and by whom. been d.
affected by a
may have not
Weaknesses - Instances of - Not everyone - Still subject to
unreported/unre is willing to exaggerations/concea
corded crimes. share this lment.
- Exaggerated information.
rates (to appease Low
- Media influence. of report.
- Creates moral - May contain
panic false or
Crime rates across Canada, - incarceration rates – judicial responses to adult and juvenile offenders –
major findings – suicide rates:
- Among Adult Criminal Offences, one of the most common offences heard in Canadian Court is
that of impaired driving. Changes in legislation a possible cause for this. Assault is the next
common, could be because of sheer broad range of the term.
- Males = Greater likelihood to commit crime. Females = lesser likelihood to commit serious
- 15% Conviction Rate on ALL reported crimes in Canada (both adult and youth). Adults are more
likely to be incarcerated.
- 25% decrease in custody under the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
- Crime overall, has seen a general reduction in the last 10 years.
- Homicide rates have also been on the decline since the 1970’s. Committed against marginal
groups (ex. Native and African Americans).
- The most common Youth Offence are property crimes.
Specific Theories and Theorists:
- Chicago School (Ecological) Approach (Concentric Zones): A sociological theory used to describe
crime based on various symbols that people interact with. “Broken windows” theory. That the
area that a person lives in or spends a significant amount of time in has a direct effect on their
likelihood for crime and deviance.
- Strain theory (Merton): A theory of crime and deviance stating that that people may turn to
deviance when they experience excessive strain. Social structure limits legitimate means of
acquiring cultural goals, subsequent strain leads to crime, individuals are forced to adapt to
inconstancy between means and goals.
Culturally Defined Goals Structurally Defined Means
o Conformity : + -
o Innovation: + -
o Ritualism: + -
o Retreatism: + -
o Rebellion: -/+ -/+
- Subculture theories: Groups that have norms and values that support criminal and deviant
activates. Members adopt crime-promoting attitudes and values (Ex. Inner city bangs, bikers,