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Chapter 8 Summary: Compass textbook Cdn 3rd Edition. All these chapters cover the concepts of what was on the midterm

Course Code
SOCI 1010
Timothy Mc Cauley
Study Guide

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Chapter 8: Social Stratification: Canadian and Global Perspectives
Patterns of Social Inequality
Economic Inequality in Canada:
- Income inequality
- Human capital: sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses
- Human capital theory: stresses the increasing centrality of education as a factor of
economic success
- Social Capital: networks or connections that individuals possess individuals are more
likely to succeed if they have strong bonds of trust, cooperation, mutual respect, and
obligation with well positioned individuals or families
- Cultural capital: stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a
superior job
- Low income cut-off: Statistic Canada’s term of the income threshold below which a
family devotes a larger share of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing
than an average family would, likely resulting in straitened circumstances
- Myths about the Poor:
1. People are poor because they don’t want to work
2. The overwhelming majority of poor people are immigrants
3. The welfare rolls are crammed with young people who ought to be earning a living
4. Most poor people are trapped in poverty
- Explaining Poverty:
o Poverty is a social construction
o Individual-level explanations: focus on attributes of people who are poor
o Attitudes of individuals low self-esteem, lack of achievement, motivation, and
an inability to delay gratification
o Social organization of society, or subsystems in society
o System of tax collection and tax allocation
o Ways of thinking, or ideological perspectives negative images of various groups
lead to an undervaluing of the ways of life of some people
- International Differences:
o Global inequality: refers to differences in the economic ranking of countries
o Cross-national variations in internal stratification: differences among
countries in their stratification systems
- Internal stratification:
o Gini index: measure of income inequality value ranges from 0 (every
household earns exact same amount of money) to 1 (all income is earned by a
single household)
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