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SOSC 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Christopher Story, Creative Destruction, Proletarian Revolution

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin
Study Guide

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AP SOSC 1000
Introduction to Social Science: Midterm Summer 2017 Review
Part A: Define and give explanation to the course
1. Holmberg’s Mistake
Recent realization that many of our assumptions about Native American life (on both
continents) may be incorrect because most of our observations of their cultures were made
while these people were under great duress. A problematic assumption is the supposition that
Native Americans lived in an eternal un-historied state. Holmberg said Indians never changed
their environment from its original wild state; history is change therefore they were people
with no history. Holmberg’s mistake explained the colonists’ view of most
Indians as incurably vicious barbarians. Because we "thought we knew everything"
about the cultures on the land of the Americas, we were not looking to see if we had missed
relevant information. It turns out that in many cases "the indigenous peoples of the Americas
were more populous, more culturally advanced, and controlled and shaped the natural
landscape to a greater extent than previously thought by both academia and general society.”
The significance of this is the fact that there has now been a realization of the mistake in 1982
and has caused archeologists and scientists to take a second look, and a deeper inquiry, into
the subject.
Also Holmberg stated that the Native Americans were among the most culturally
backward peoples of the world living in constant want and hunger and they were among the
most culturally impoverished people on earth. However this was not because they have an
unchanged past, but because of smallpox and influenza. In other words, if one third of OUR
population (parents, leaders, etc.) had been wiped out because of small pox, and our normal
operating procedures had been disrupted by war and genocide, would our actions look
"normal" to an outside observer? Significance is that this relates to Mythistory because he did
not consider all the facts like how Columbus who discovered America and treated aboriginals
with disrespect and violence. Relates to dominant ideology too because the dominant
ideology tends to be the accepted one but is not entirely right because it was created with
biases or single perspectives
2. Thomas Hobbes
Explored the nature of human condition and established the fact that human behaviour
can be studied. Hobbes believed that humans originally acted in a state of nature humans
fueled by the drive to accumulate were in constant competition with each other and only lived
reasonably when subjecting themselves to a common power. Personal sovereignty: ability to
sell our own labor and we aren’t a pawn of the ruling classes or the government. Social
contract: theory of social behaviour being rational and how it causes humans to form societies
(who would rule/ govern the people). Rise to classical ideology where we have the power in
our persons and we have property to ourselves this led to classical liberalism. Classical
liberalism: the belief of the absence of cohesion (forming of united whole) and the individual
being free to do as they please –the government is seen as the primary threat to the rights of
individuals. Significance: individuals should not be restricted, they can buy/ sell land, access
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AP SOSC 1000
the resources they want and this relates to full time employment which involves selling one’s
capacity for work.
3. Mythistory
Historians blending together histories with myths (ideology) allowing, for instance, an
event in history to sound better to the public than it actually is in order for them to accept it;
myths are self-validating. Myth and history are close in kin inasmuch as both explain how
things got to be the way they are by telling a story. However what seems true to one person
will seem false to another meaning one person’s truth becomes another person’s myth. To
become history facts have to be put together into a pattern that is understandable and
credible; however what happens if these 2 criterions are met such as facts are put together
and a credible book publishes them but the facts they print, are found out to be actually false
like the Christopher Columbus story. The history of the ‘story’ of Christopher Columbus that
I grew up with has now changed to a myth because the nice heroic stories written in history
textbooks were out together to make Columbus sound like a hero when in reality he
basically started slavery. Historians wrote about the history of him but left out some
facts as well as added things to make it sound more acceptable to the general public.
Meaning our history is or at least parts of it are myths. The significance of this is the fact that
our history may be completely untrue since eternal and universal truth about human
behaviour is an unattainable goal. Another significant point this illustrates is what George
Orwell quotes,” who controls the past controls the future. And who controls the present
controls the past” meaning those who dominate our society are in a position to write our
histories and if they can do that, they can decide our future.
4. Reform Liberalism
Liberalism: individual and self are important, and the education of everyone is
necessary for everyone to reach their full potential. 4 Characteristics of Reform Liberalism:
O Personal Freedom: access to means to reach full potential and government should help and
provide that right to every citizen while being active not passive when allowing freedom
O Limited government: power of government can be used to reduce freedom and it can also
enhance it –more earnings = more tax for social services and redistribution of wealth from the
O Equality of Right/ Opportunity: equal opportunity and rights for all grants and loans for
education –Classical liberals don’t want tax but promote equality, not procedural fairness
O Consent of the Governed: citizens are governed but can limit government control by not
Significance: gives every individual in society the equal opportunity to access resources that
are found within society itself –focuses on the center of society around the individual which
relates to individualism and modern society
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AP SOSC 1000
5. Just in Time Workforce
Functional flexibility borrows much from the Japanese approach of just-in-time (JIT)
production. JIT is oriented to specialty markets and therefore requires an ability to adapt and
change products more rapidly than the mass production of homogeneous goods under
Fordism allows. Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business
return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs.
Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a
manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve
continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and
Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to
the inventory reduction at the center of JIT, which saves warehouse space and costs, but JIT
relies on other elements in the inventory chain: for instance, its effective application cannot
be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "end up
with the opposite of the desired result. One of the most significant transitions in recent years
has been the shift from Fordism production to flexible production. Significance: Relates to
Westray (bypassing of regulations regarding health and safety of workers through threats of
losing job and management ignorance) and how this type of work creates impoverished
situations because of low job stability and the bypassing of regulations and full time benefits
6. Honour
Illustrated in “the solidarity of” by explaining it in terms of prestige in a family.
However their explanation can be directed to the community as a whole. It is stated that
prestige results from a hierarchical ordering which can be seen as government and citizens.
What plays an important factor in determining this hierarchy of prestige is elements of
prejudice and speculation. Honour then is a condition of integrity of being untouched” by
this kind of attack, insult, or betrayal. This is illustrated in how the government makes the
rules and society cannot really do anything about it. Also the intrinsic principles of honour
refer to sex because it is assumed that some jobs or specifically meant for men and others for
women. It also states that men, in this case government, must continually use lies because it
is a matter of habit and principle to deny other info. This can be seen as in the Christopher
story whereas lies were told. Significance: in traditional society, honor his family’s level of
prestige and it is kept by following a set of rules and standards for each gender- in a set
society and is a form of social organization in society itself.
7. Legitimation Function
Government has two main objectives: legitimation and accumulation. As part of the
legitimation function, government officials must protect the public in order to maintain their
power. This secures public support for future elections and discourages major conflicts,
which may result in their removal from power. They legitimize everything using persuasive
methods which change society into accepting new different norms. Government's
accumulation function necessitates that officials support economic growth that will increase
their revenues, such as by supporting investments by industry. Legitimation or legitimization
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