SOSC 1350 Study Guide - Socalled, Idle No More, Civilization V

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Published on 27 Jan 2013
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GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES
The Canadian state itself exists on the basis of the
expropriation of native land and resources, the subordination
of native politics.
—Ward Churchill (1947-present)
During the colonial period, male authority was being encouraged
by Euro-Americans in their political and military dealings with
native Americans at the same time [native] women were
becoming dependent in individual households on wage-earning
and trading husbands.
—Eleanor Leacock (1922-1987)
1. Who are We Talking About When We Talk About Aboriginal
Peoples?
- Aboriginal peoples are diverse group
- includes Inuit, Metis, First Nations
- important to avoid “ Canadian Indian”
- Common to hear Canadians refer “ Indians” as if they were one person, and all live the same lives
- ^ homogenizing the group
- In Canada Aboriginals speak over 60 different languages, 52 speaking cultural groups
- More aboriginal people live in cities
- 1961 only 60% live in city than 2000 I 49%
- 2011 approx. 79% live off reserve, 59% live in large cities like Edmonton and Toronto
- Poor living disease bring upon sickness
- 8/10 times higher than before
- The “Body Bag Scandal” in 2009, varies packages went across Canada, and Manitoba requested it, but
the gov’t sent them a bunch of body bags instead
- ^ shows how they view Aboriginal Canadians, and Manitoba Aboriginal leaders held a conference with
the Body Bags
2. Review (and Expansion Upon) Previous Discussions Relating to
Aboriginal Peoples
a. social and economic marginalization
Aboriginal people were seen to impendence, they sought to change Aboriginal people (culture
and religion) in 1950s
^ this transition was to achieve through residential schools
Aboriginals are the most marginalized and particular women
Eg: average income was 36% lower, and aboriginal women are poorer than men and non-
aboriginal women
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aboriginal people have a higher death rate, and life expectancy is 7 years lower than non-
aboriginals, and they(aboriginal women) are more likely to experience violence
i. average income
ii. poverty
iii. death rate
iv. life expectancy
v. experiences with violence
b. section 12 (1)(b) of the Indian Act
- Section 12 1b is about a women of Indian status and marries non-aboriginal man lost her Indian status
due to marriage (and loss of several rights like lost her benefits of a home), if it was the other way
around, both spouses have the status of an Indian
i. Jeannette Corbiere-Lavell
- Jeanette lost her case due to formal equality reasoning (since they treat all of them the same then they
did no wrong)
ii. Mary Two-Axe Early’s activism
- Mary who extended and activist issue and good job highlighting the issue because of activism
iii. Sandra Lovelace at the United Nations
- Sandra who married early and lost her status, Then separated with her spouse and wanted to move back
to her reserve, they prevented her from going and charged her for trespassing, by they denying her
moving in they denied her culture and language.
iv. Bill C-31 (1985)
v. legacy of 12(1)(b) today
- 2biv and v the Bill C-31 (act to amend the Indian act), over 25 years were changed, this legal continues
till this day, so after this bill estimated 35000 women reclaimed their status, but for the 2nd generation it
was difficult to reclaim their status (means if their mother married non-aboriginal without Indian status,
then okay, but if great grandmother and so on did marry non-aboriginal, then you are out of luck since
it is an older generation) – it is estimated that many do not have this status because they could not claim
It since it is a longer process like death certificate and birth certificate and knowledge (the legacy)
c. Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system
i. Aboriginal inmates
ii. rates of Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal people in custody
- 2c i & ii Aboriginal people as a whole are over presented like aboriginal inmate make out 7% in Ontario,
17% in BC, 31% in Alberta and 51% in Manitoba and 73% in Saskatchewan (when only 10%
aboriginal live in Saskatchewan) it shows
iii. Aboriginal federal offender prison population growth
rate
- shows that it is likely to get worse, aboriginals are more likely to go to prison and 38% of aboriginal
birth rate
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