•The origins of poverty remained undiscussed,
•There was no attempt to define basic human needs and to measure what was necessary to satisfy
6. “There is nothing objective about objectivity”
There is nothing objective about objectivity, both the notion of objectivity and the notion of the dominant
ideology go hand in hand. When something appears objective, it has a hidden bias in it.
Significance: For example if we will take a look at the situation where some Third World countries reject
paying their debts to IMF and the World Bank, it seems quite objective to think that people in the Third
World countries are irresponsible. However, there is nothing objective about objectivity, and when we
start looking at the reasons why those countries are rejecting their debts and calling them illegitimate
(increasing the interest rate from 6-8% to 22% against the terms of the initial contract, demands on adding
the insurance premiums, and overvaluation of US currency and devaluation of Third World currencies as
the result of change in the universal currency standard from gold to the US dollar), we can see that the
Third World countries are just trying to gain some fairness.
7. Metropolitan/ Satellite
Metropolitan – 1st world, head office, city/urban centres (where companies are originated and expand from
there creating satellites
Satellite – 3rd world, regional offices, country/ rural centres (profits made by Satellites transferred to
metropolitan where the head offices are.
Significance: The Metropolitan/ Satellite relationships model was used by A.G. Frank to demonstrate that
there is a ‘chain of dependency’ running down from the highly advanced countries of the world. Frank
argued that there is a chain of metropolises and satellites that runs from the world metropolis down to the
rural merchants who are satellites of the local commercial metropolitan centre but who in their turn have
peasants as their satellites. According to Frank the Third World countries while being dependent, can only
possibly expand if the dominant metropolis expands. But such expansion is always under control of the
metropolis since any expanded surplus is automatically passed upwards out of the satellite. According to
the dependency theorists the only way to stop this exploitation and break the chain of dependency is
socialist revolution by the Third World working class which will remove the comprador elite, the weakest
link in the chain.
8. The triangle of trade
1) British ships leave for Africa loaded with weapons, clothes, ect.
2) In Africa they exchange goods for slaves
3) In Caribbean Islands they exchange slaves for Caribbean produce (especially cotton and sugar)
and return for England.
Europeans were taking this route over and over again and making profits at every stage of the triangular
•The triangular trade had a serious impact on the growth of the African population.
•The European traders had a particularly harmful affect on the existing political and economic
patterns of African Society (conflict between dominant elite and the subordinate groups)
•It made African, Caribbean and other countries highly dependent on the export of their resources
(crops and labour) in exchange for the import of manufactured goods from capitalist societies.
This showed how Africa was supporting the development of European market instead of our
traditional view of the Europeans helping Africa to develop.