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WRIT 2003 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: David Rumelhart, New Rhetorics, Linguistic Prescription

Course Code
WRIT 2003
John Spencer
Study Guide

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Lecture 1
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge
How humans come to know; how do we know what we know?
How do we know what is around us is what we think it is? Ex. how do we know if the sky
is the sky and how do we know if its colour is really blue?
How do we know about how our relationship with others should be or is?
- Language = epistemic language is HOW we know what we know
- We USE language to learn the world through speaking, thinking, writing etc. (All
language acts)
- Writing is not primarily about communication, rather it is about composing
Lecture 2
Language is epistemic and socially constructed
Inquiry Paradigm
J. Emig article
Paradigm: a descriptive model for systematic research which varies across disciplines
- This could be different within the same discipline
Inquiry: iui is used athe tha the te eseah because its connotations ae
more generous
5 aspects that influence an inquiry paradigm:
1. Governing Gaze: a stable way on conceiving the world: positivist, phenomenological,
2. Set of Assumptions:
Set of assumptions based on these stable conceptions
- Positivist: a single piece of writing epesets oe’s ailit to ite iespetie of
the context
- Phenomenologist: context influences our abilities. Ex. imposes bias, not concrete
answer to many questions
3. A theory: the governing gaze and assumption from theories
- Theory of meaning
- Theory of language
- Theory of learning
- Theory of research
4. Tradition: previous scholarly research; indigenous knowledge
5. Methodology: do we need to control a group? What tools are we going yo use?
- Process of inquiry
Meta: awareness
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Cognitive: the way our brains think; be aware of the choices you are making and make
different choices in different situations
***the more a writer is aware of how they go about their writing, the more successful
they will be***
Thinking about how you think
Lecture 3
Communication Triangle
Theories of writing, 4 components of the communication triangle:
1. Encoder: person/machine that makes the signal
2. Signal itself: message that the machine or human is encoding
3. Decoder: machine or person that receives the signal and makes sense of it
4. Contextual reality: situation in which the steps are occurring what is the purpose,
what is the timeline, when is it occurring?
Contemporary Synthesis
Reading is the process of constructing meaning through a dynamic interaction between
the eade’s eistig koledge, the information suggested by the written language,
and the context of the reading situation
Reading Theory
1. Interactive Process: The Raeder builds a hypothesis based on her interaction with the
written text, and this hypothesis slightly changes as she begins to read the text as it
2. Constructive Process: The reading is created by the reader; reading is not so much a
process of extracting meaning from text as it is constructing meaning from a tex6
3. Context dependant
4. Multi-level complex process
5. Long Term memory
David Rumelhart reading
A structure of information stored in multiple schemata, fueled by memory,
encompassing a specific concept
An underlying organizational pattern/structure; conceptual framework
- A schema provides the basis by which someone relates to the events he or she
Ex. we use past experiences in order to come up with theories that lead us to a
Ex. default variables inferring unobserved objects if MONEY is unnoticed but
MERCHANDISE is purchased we infer the presence of money
2 basic sources for activation of schemata
Lecture 4
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