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University of Auckland
Ancient History
Dr.Jeremy Armstrong

ANCIENT HISTORY 102 Time Periods: 55 000 BC Hunter-gatherers arrive in Greec Middle Palaeolithic Period 6 000 BC Stable populations and settlements Neolithic Period 3 000 BC Minoans and Mycenaeans Bronze Age 1 150 BC ? Dark Ages 700 BC Kings, Tyrants and the origins of the Greek city-state Archaic Period 480 BC Persian Wars to Alexander the Great Classical Period 323 BC Alexander to the conquest by Rome Hellenistic Period 168 BC Greece in the Bronze Age  Geography of Greece  Mediterranean climate (semiarid) – long, hot summers and short, moist winters  affects agriculture thus the ‘Mediterranean triad’  grain, grapes, olives as the raw produce  bread, wine, olive oil as the staples of Greek diet  livestock  pastoralism of sheep, goats  cattle and horses as status symbols for the rich  geography  long, craggy coastline + rugged, mountainous inland  only 20% is good agricultural land but soil is fertile and conducive to grains  easiest way to travel is by sea  Aegean sea tied Greece to Near East and Egypt  trade overseas for raw materials (especially as Greece is not a natural resource-rich land)  generally composed of Mainland Greece and islands  example: Peloponnese is connected to the mainland (near the city of Corinth) by a narrow land bridge – Isthmus of Corinth  the poor geography of Greece did not encourage the development of a large, empire-type people, but of smaller groups of people – all sharing the limited resources  Spirit of Agon (’αγων) – spirit of competition, developed due to above  The Aegean Bronze Age (c. 3000-c. 1150 BC) History of early human habitation in Greece  c.3000 BC – introduction of bronze (90% copper + 10% tin) into Greece  made work and war more efficient  widened the gap in wealth and prestige between higher-ranked families and everyone else  followed by a short period of great growth  village expansion  new infrastructure  better agriculture  c.2250BC – a period of severe destruction throughout most of Mainland Greece and the islands  invaders? internal warfare? drought? a combination of factors?  Crete  suffered less severe destruction than the mainland supposedly due to the isolated nature of the island  3000 BC saw a longer period of growth in Crete  Knossos  the most dominant city-state/community in Crete  unsure whether true political centre of Crete or just the most dominant (like Auckland)  The Palace at Knossos  excavated by Sir Arthur Evans  supposedly served both a ritual and political purpose  maze-like  the Minoans (pp.27-35)  not a lot of evidence to fully reconstruct culture  had a lot of wealth in trade, as traders and trade facilitators  literate (Linear A)  Chthonic Symbol (snake goddess)  double-headed ax (Labrys)  bull as a prominent animal (in frescoes, etc.)  Theseus and the Minotaur myth + the maze-like nature of the Palace at Knossos  c.1500 BC – the Palace at Knossos was redesigned!  possibility that mainland Greeks (Mycenaeans) took over Crete after a weakening in the Minoan culture – Theseus and the Minotaur myth a history?  volcanic eruption close to the island, near the time  tidal wave?  Mycenaeans (pp.35-54)  literate (Linear B – readable)  also agricultural like the Minoans  rougher around the edges  more war-like, militaristic  best known for the Trojan War – myth or history?  basically one of the many large-scale Mycenaean raids similar to the one in Knossos  male Sky God  main centres (in mainland Greece): Agros and Mycenae  Mycenae excavated by Heinrich Schliemann who also excavated Troy  more on Mycenae  also centred around a palace (Citadel)  walls were very thick and large – Cyclopean Masonry (too large to have been built by men) – but area was smaller than Palace at Knossos  lion gate  chariot access to the centre of the palace  1400-1200BC – height of the Mycenaean culture  a warfare society with a strong political structure, social hierarchy, and trading culture  1100 BC – the end of the Bronze Age, sometime after the Trojan War  bronze being replaced by long, metal swords, javelins  new style of warfare: infantry rather than chariot warfare  supposedly there was a Dorian invasion  Dorians eventually settled in modern-day Sparta  evidence that all Mycenaean settlements were destroyed by that time – invasion or other cause?  historians argue that end of the Bronze Age was brought about by Systems Collapse  everything eventually falls apart even without the help of warfare Greece in the Dark Ages  Greece and the Mediterranean c.1100 BC  the situation in the Near East (1100BC)  most of the eastern Mediterranean in general decline  decline in trade, travel  less wealth and ideas circulating  massive movement of peoples (Assyrians, etc.)  ‘power vacuum’  contraction, maintenance and internal security prioritised over expansion of boundaries  not a lot of interaction between major powers in terms of foreign relations, military movement  allowed for the rise of little city-states (e.g. Phoenicians)  the situation in Greece  similar to the Near East, Greece experienced a general decline in 1100BC  period of massive change  movement away from centralised state system  people moving into smaller communities (ruled by Basileus)  decline in population  deaths, migration, fewer births  decline in economy  trade is more internal, less external trade than before  decline in culture  less art (less wealth circulating, less demand, etc.)  decline in writing  writing disappears as there is little need for lists/catalogues (primary use of Linear B) as possessions are few  BUT still a strong oral tradition  CONTINUITY (some things remained the same)  religious beliefs and practices; gods and goddesses  agricultural techniques, crops; pastoral techniques, animals  pottery, metalworking, carpentry, weaving remained albeit at a lower skill level and refinement  basic household level economy  Cyprus and Crete  CYPRUS  seems to have avoided most of the decline problems of mainland Greece because of its isolation  close enough, though, to maintain contact  (cast) iron smelting industry  CRETE  also avoided most of the decline due to its location, maintained links  did NOT have an iron smelting industry (c/o skills learned from mainland Greeks)  slowly became more isolated, developed its own distinctive culture over time  Sources for the Dark Ages – how do we know all THAT about the ‘DARK Ages’?  archaeology  survey archaeology  written evidence  both below are evidence of a new alphabetic script and both provided information about the later Dark Ages  Homer  Illiad  Odyssey  Hesiod  Theogony  Works and Days  Early Dark Age Eras – evidence to distinguish these is the evolution of pottery (differences in design, material, refinement over time)  Submycenaean Period (1100-1000 BC)  heart of the decline in the Dark Ages  decline (less pottery, pottery is poor – more for function than aesthetics/prestige)  society divides into little communities ruled by a warleader/chief/’king’ – Basileus  Protogeometric Period (1000-900 BC)  things seem to be looking up (pottery is becoming better – some artistry present, prestige can now be worried about)  Lefkandi, Eubea (Evia) – a case study)  large tomb (late 10 century)  peak  evidence of improvement  architecture is completely different from Mycenaean architecture  upward ‘peaks and troughs’ pattern  peak followed by 1 or 2 generations’ worth of troughs followed by higher peak…  increased sophistication?  Early Dark Age Society Summary  Continuity and Change  ‘Limited horizons’  Peaks and Troughs  The Geometric Period (900-700 BC)  higher level of social specialisation and sophistication evident  elaborate geometric designs on pottery  pictorial representations on pottery, etc.  advent of IRON  Cyprus brought iron into mainland Greece in the form of weaponry  iron weaponry as a sign of things looking up, prestige  rediscovery of WRITING  Phoenician alphabetic script – based on the production of sound  Greek Society – archaeology suggests a sophisticated society  small communities  ‘village life’ dominates  developments in trade and naval technology  large ships built for trade and warfare  suggests the expansion of horizons once again  warrior burials  suggests a structured society where rigid rules about what items you can be buried with exist (different for men, women, warriors, etc.)  Homer  works (Illiad and Odyssey) are about Bronze Age people – MYCENAEANS th th th  questions as to how a 7 century man knows about 11 -10 century events  suggestion that maybe it is simply a form of poetic distancing  works may not actually be about Bronze Age people  works may actually be a criticism of Homeric Greek society?  The Iliad  Warrior society  individuals seeking personal glory  Arete and Time  arete – Greek idea of excellence  in English: virtue, goodness, and excellence  "being the best you can be"  "reaching your highest human potential."  Heroic world view  ‘shame society’  what people think of you is all that matters  honour is everything, honour is more than life  defined externally – honour is what people see you doing  is all about:  WHO did you fight?  HOW did you fight? (honourably)  Did you win or lose? (least important)  principles of fairness and reciprocity are important  ‘A greedy king is just as bad as a cowardly king.’  Agon – spirit of competition  Political structure has hierarchy  King (Basileus)  Assembly of warriors  Hetairoi (the ‘best buds’, advisors, above Boule)  Boule (the rest of the assembly of warrior)  Everyone else  The Odyssey  many of the same from Illiad  Aside from those, your honour also depends on your:  Hospitality – as a social responsibility based on trust and honour  Gift-giving  Travel – the conquest of man over the seas  Women  value is now tied to the home as opposed to Illiad society where women were simply property  good woman = good mother, loyal wife, etc.  Hesiod  ‘Theogony’  about the basics of Greek religion  Polytheistic  No rigid dogma  ‘Works and Days’  about the human condition  humans are different from animals due to the different law that governs us:  Nomos – ‘natural law’, governs animals  Dike – ‘human law’, governs humans  ergo, humans must NOT behave like animals  (the dangers of) Hubris  defined as ‘not knowing your place’  especially dangerous when involving the gods  so, KEEP TO YOUR PLACE  End of the Dark Ages  Evolution of Dark Age Society  BEGINS: small illiterate farming communities  ENDS: warrior aristocracy under the rule of a king  Greece in the 8 century BC  population growth leading to  land shortage  building pressure on the existing system Archaic Greece  Archaic Period – set the foundation for classical Greece  The Birth of the Polis  town/city of various sizes  generally referring to an urban area/centre and its surrounding land (usually farmland)  ‘Little Republics’  had a constitutional base (written or not)  saw the development of democratic machinery  government without a King/Basileus  developed from Dark Age farming villages via  Synoecism  amalgamation/joining together of small villages in Ancient Greece  the process by which every town, village and hamlet of a demos/territorial commuity accepted a single political centre  WHY small units only  terrain – made it difficult to expand the size of a polis  corporate identity + differences in dialect = strong local identitiy (I am Greek, but I am also Athenian.)  agon – band together as a polis to protect what you have and compete with other polis for the limited resources of Greece  power vacuum – no one great power to whip all polis together into a larger unit  Evolution of Political Thought – explanation as to why Basileus-ruled tribes were stamped out  How did the polis develop?  Homeric kingship  strength-based  I am strongest ergo I am king.  warrior-supported kingship  somewhat democratic?  wealth-based  iron weapons cost + booty from raids  expansion of agriculture in the late Dark Ages  led to the rise of a new land-owning elite – farmers, NOT warriors, were the new ‘landed aristocracy’  land as the new economic power  HISTORICAL RULE: economic power = political power  disappearance of kings by 2 main mechanisms  kings die, new elites refuse to accept another  king’s power slowly erodes (more common)  new leadership roles – as decided by the landed elite (a limited group)  limited term magistrates  landed elite taking over warrior elites  different magistracies for agriculture, military, etc.  separation of powers  new laws  Boule + Citizen’s Assembly  not warriors anymore but landed aristocracy  NEW SYSTEM somewhat democratic?  NO, incredibly oppressive for the majority who weren’t part of the landed elite  Greece’s New Aristocracy  WHO are they?  land-based wealth  gradual shift from economic to hereditary aristocracy  power and influence  political influence  only a small, select number of families in the elite hole political clout  important role in Greek religion  top families = top people in religion as well  military power  elite take military power from warriors as they are the few who can afford weaponry  economic power  since they control the land  Greek Colonization  sparked by growing population pressures and aristocratic oppression  colonization = letting off some steam  got rid of some excess population as well as some aggressive types in Greek society  Areas of Colonization  major areas: Sicily, S. Italy, Asia Minor, Black Sea  throughout Mediterranean: France, Africa, etc.  Mechanisms of Colonization  typically followed trade routes  takeover of land was not always by force, usually able to peacefully establish own polis in new land  only way for Greeks to move up the ladder in Archaic Period  mother city chooses leader  usually from middle class  becomes top man in new colony/pois  leader chooses followers  usually from the lower levels of society  become middle class in new colony  Hoplite Warfare  emerges from  Homeric warfare  highly individual  goal is personal glory  participation in this becomes essential to one’s standing in the polis  Hoplite class  new equipment (c. 700BC)  Hoplon  large, circular shield (about 3’)  wood with a layer of bronze  new tactics (c. 640-600BC)  specialized infantry  Hoplite phalanx  dense formation  quite effective (until the advent of firearms)  limits: requires flat, even terrain  both parties usually agreed to fight in one such place beforehand  civic militia  soldiers were farmers first  warriors become soldiers  from individuals out for personal glory to individuals thinking in terms of the group  Age of Tyrants  ‘tyrant’ = unconstitutional ruler (a neutral term)  Origin of tyrants (how they come into power)  Military coups  often using the local Hoplite army to come into power  always had the tacit support of the local Hoplite class and merchant class  suggests general discontentment in the locale in the first place  Transformation of Greek society  power returns to the hands of the wealthy (power is wealth-based and later hereditary)  opens up the system  more opportunities for people to enter the system  especially for those who actively, intelligently sought their own wealth (via trade with outside, etc.)  First generation of tyrants was generally composed of noble, virtuous people who had the common good in mind. Second generation of tyrants was not as promising – only looking to stay in power.  Greek Religion  Homer and Hesiod  The Homeric Gods  anthropomorphic  they take human shape, emotion, etc. but on a bigger scale  sources of both awe and laughter  not omniscient  did not know everything  able to be fooled/cheated sometimes  not ethical  not all good or all evil  not concerned with justice  no concept of ‘sin’ (your transgressions against a god are the same as those you have against a king)  Religion and the Polis  religion evolves as Greek society does  recall the 3 main functions of religion  to explain the cosmos, the world we live in  to deal with individual needs (fears, etc.)  for social cohesion (bringing people in the community together)  localized and distinct in each polis  not one single body or Greek-wide/Pan-Hellenic church like modern Catholicism  civic  practices were part of civic life  no separation between political and religious life  (public) membership in the civic religion was essential to social order  practices  sacrifice of animals to the gods  Greek Religion in the Late Archaic Period  Changes in the 7 and 6 centuries BC  people wanted a religion that encompassed certain ideas:  Justice  the idea where one ultimately gets what he is due  concept of the afterlife  Miasma  pollution that attaches to a person and his descendants due to a fault  ‘externalised sin’  way of explaining why bad things happen to good people  ‘Mystery Cults’  offered what mainstream religion did not  3 main mystery cults in Greece  Eleusinian mysteries ( and  Orphism (  Dionsius/Bachic (  Rites/characteristics  personal  gives one an individual relationship to one or two individuals of the divine  single deity  for each person as a special connection  still worshipped all general gods  initiation  death and sex  Greek Philosophy  Ionia (on the coast of modern day Turkey)  flexible nature of Greek religion  allowed for rational thought, etc.  wealth  allowed for the existence of the ‘leisure class’  progress  based on human achievement  location on an East/West interface  West: Greece :: East: other civilisations  new ideas enter Ionian society (more open minded than mainland Greeks) [SEE BELOW]  Humanism and Rationalism  These values were a large part of Greek society  showed in everything from politics to art  RATIONALISM  theory of intellect and reason being the key source of knowledge  belief that humans are CAPABLE of understanding everything  emphasis on ‘capable’ – does not mean that people DO understand everything or will  rejects phrases like: ‘That is beyond human understanding’ or ‘That is only for the gods to know’  nothing is beyond human understanding  the power to understand the world lies within us  it is better to use mental faculties to find answers than to pray for a revelation.  evident in Greek architecture  4 tenets of rationalism  Logic  Consistency  Generalization  Natural causation  HUMANISM  belief that humans are the most important concern of human beings  focused mainly on visible progress: achievements, values, and abilities of humans  ultimately derived from Greek religion  Unlike the animal headed, monstrous gods of others civilizations, the Greek gods are merely superheroes -- humans on a grand scale.  they have all the physical characteristics of humans on an exaggerated scale  also have the emotional makeup of humans – anger, jealousy, love, lust, etc.  engage with humans in battles, love affairs, etc.  evident in Greek sculpture, art, plays, poetry where the primary subject is the human individual and how he reacts to challenging circumstances  Greek Art and Architecture  Archaic Greece experienced a burst of creative energy unsurpassed in any comparable time period of the ancient world  ART  East/west interface  the ‘Orientalizing’ of Greek art  floral designs, freizes of real and fantastic animals  New painting techniques  Black figure  Red figure  Statues  Bronze  Marble (Kouros – naked male figure ‘youth’ and Kore – clothed young female ‘maiden’)  Egyptian influence in rigid poses  Lyric Poetry  as opposed to Homer/Hesiod epic narratives (very rhythmic)  derived from folk songs created for specific occasions (e.g. harvests, weddings, coming of age)  had metrical pattern, subject matter, occasion, tone and musical accompaniment  presented in performance  2 types: solo songs and choral songs  ARCHITECTURE  Use of stone and marble  Large infrastructure again (not since Mycenaean age)  mostly built in an around the agora/large gathering place  sanctuaries, fountain houses, public sculptural monuments, gymnasium/male exercise grounds, palaestra/wrestling grounds  Overview of the Archaic Age  Birth of the Polis  Greek society is now urban  New sense of community  Colonisation  Sparked by a desire for land and aristocratic oppression at home  Growth of the merchant and hoplite classes  Sense of Progress  Era of creativity nd  Problem with 2 generation of tyrants Archaic Sparta  BITS on Sparta  found a way to avoid tyranny, ergo Spartan society different from other poleis  location  southern Peloponnese  inland city, in a river valley with reasonably good soil for farming  isolated from other poleis  not a major trading hub  language  Dorian Greek  Origins  Mycenaean settlement  with Menelaion – Mycenaean tomb, right next to where Spartan settlement popped up  although no continuity from Mycenaeans to Spartans  hard to tell when Sparta sprung up as a city  though most probably similar to other polis (synoecism)  Dorian Invasion  Spartans claim they are descendants of Dorian invaders who toppled Mycenaeans  came into and divided up Peloponnese soon after Trojan War  REMEMBER: archaeological evidence for Dorian invasion questions this  cultural change does not always mean an actual migration/invasion  ‘Sons of Herakles’  Spartans claim to be sons of Hercules  matches with concept of Dorian invasion  PURPOSE OF ORIGIN MYTHS  Spartans probably don’t even know their own origin history  gave Spartans context for themselves  gives Spartans political claim to controlling Peloponnese  Herakles once the rules of Peloponnese  justifies their later political expansion  Dorian Invasion just made up to justify Spartan expansion?  Problems with Spartan History  most Spartan History based on oral tradition  flexible, adaptive and changes over time  lack of native evidence  Athenian dominance in sources  Athens was the great rival and enemy of Sparta in those times  Spartan reputation for secrecy  Xenelasiai  the regular expulsion of foreigners from Sparta  Sparta as the ‘anti-Athens’  much more a stereotype than a factual culture (‘That’s not how we do things in Athens, that’s how they do it in Sparta!’)  Sparta as a philosophical archetype  ‘Spartan Mirage’  how Spartans wanted to be perceived  Spartans perpetuating their own brand of imaging (not always factual)  Sparta’s Expansion  conventional narrative  little/no overseas colonisation (except Taras)  pressure alleviated via MILITARY EXPANSION instead  Conquest of Lakonia (by 750 BC) – see black circle on map above  Conquest of Messenia (by 710 BC) – see yellow circle on map above  Divisions of Spartan society (in descending order)  Spartiates (Spartans)  Perioikoi (Lakedaimonians)  ‘those that live around’  not full Spartans but close enough  some intermarriage  freedom to manage their own affairs but no control in foreign and Spartan policy as a whole  Helots (Lakedaimonians and Messenians)  someone having been captured/taken prisoner  prisoners of Spartan war machine  no rights whatsoever  freed by Thebes in 371 BC (approx. 100 years later)  Helot resistance  465 BC revolt and several others  constant worry for Spartans  Second Messenian War  rebellion of Messenians in the wake of a major Spartan military defeat by the Agrives (Battle of Hysiae)  Spartans prevailed and rebels were exiled to Sicily  Messenian History  ‘Messenian’ identity  archaeological evidence of a single, coherent, ‘Messenian’ identity very little  ‘Messenians’ as a distinct culture  likely 5 century BC  identity forged under Spartan rule  simply forged to be in opposition to the Spartans  and VIS VERSA? Did Spartans fabricate because of…  ‘origins’ fabricated as with Spartans’??  More plausible picture of Spartan expansion during the late Archaic Age?  Spartans fighting and winning against small farmer groups and NOT whole cities/societies?  Limits of Spartan Expansion  Spartans didn’t do so well when fighting against other communities  Battle at Hysiae (669 BC)  Spartan defeat at Argos  Battle of the Fetters  defeated by Tegea  Battle of the Champions  300 champions chosen for each side  2 from Argos left vs 1 Spartan  Battle at Phigaleia  Sparta actually only controls 2/5 of Peloponnese  stops expanding via direct conquest  The Peloponnesian League  ‘The Spartans and their allies’  earliest and longest lasting Greek alliance  allies all had the same friends and enemies as Sparta  allies all follow Sparta  SPARTA IS THE HEAD  Sparta becomes the only super power in Greece at the time  The Price of Spartan Success  Helot troubles  Spartan paranoia?  Stasis  Conquest means Sparta avoided tyranny but new prosperity leads to complacency  also missed out on all the development brought about by Age of Tyrants  Sparta stops its constitutional development  Reforms of Lycurgus  Lycurgus (c. 650 BC) th  7 century Spartan reformet  rewrote the constitution of Sparta, changed just about every aspect of society  little reference to him in only native Spartan source (Tyrtaeus)  true person or another Spartan myth?  reforms were from the Oracle of Delphi  The ‘Great Rhetra’  ‘statement’ given to Lycurgus by the Delphic Oracle  deals with religious, military and political issues  role of citizen’s assembly  power of the kings and gerousia  lines 1-7  Temples  Zeus Sullianos and Athena Sulliana  Tribes and obai  Gerousia  council of elders  Feast of Apollo  new measure brought in at the feasts  Citizens’ Assembly has final authority but  Gerousia can override if the assembly speaks ‘crookedly’  basis of Spartan gov’t  Spartan Politics (in hierarchical order)  Kings  Dual kingship  Agiads and Eurypontids  Military duties  leading the army  Religious duties  Priests of Zeus  First Honour in ritual sacrifices, rations, etc.  Diplomatic, Legal roles  marriage, family laws, etc.  introduces measures to the Gerousia (who then write it up)  always given public burial in Sparta  emphasised how different/superior they were to common people  Gerousia  Council of Elders (28 people) + Kings  most influential people in Sparta (30 including kings)  draft proposals for the Assembly  Assembly  only 11 Assembly debates in Classical Sparta  suggests that a lot of Spartans didn’t really have a say  Gerousia is basically the true power in Sparta  no real power  Ephors  one from each of the 5 initial villages that came together to form Sparta (5)  representatives of the community that keep the kings in check  at least 2 must accompany king in leading the army  in charge of keeping kings to their oaths  call the Council (King introduces > Ephors call Council > Gerousia…)  diplomats  in charge of overseeing the helots  may declare war on helots  oversee everyone in the Agoge  in charge of Spartan education  ‘have the power in the greatest of affairs’  serve only 1 year in office  most corruptible?  least Spartan of the Spartans?  Spartan avoidance of tyranny  led to stasis [see Lecture 7]  Spartan Education (girls’ education similar without the military training and with better rations for reproduction reasons)  The Agoge – ‘upbringing’ for ages 7 to 20  boarding school + Hitler youth?  7-18 pais  children were divided into Bouai (‘herds’ headed by one person)  though directly under the head of their bouai, they were all generally under full Spartiate men  18-20 paidiskos  20-30 hebon  Training  no sandals, minimal clothing  ‘hardening’ the children  stealing to supplement meagre rations was permitted, except getting caught  ritual endurance tests  try to steal cheese from the alter  if the children were caught, they would be flogged out in public (sometimes to death)  became a public spectacle  mock battles  institutionalised homosexual pairings (older boy – erastes, the lover and younger boy – eromenos, the loved)  for training, learning  Krypteia  annual war against helots (declared by Ephors)  best boys were sent out to hunt and kill helots  encouraged endurance, resourcefulness and trained them in killing other people  Greek Sexuality  Homosexual relationships  more meaningful relationship  usually between older-younger men  crucial to younger boy’s education  did not always involve sex, though did involve sex  part of the institutional educational system  Heterosexual relationships  Limited as women were not really ‘people’  not capable of being rational, etc.  Spartan Communal Life  Syssition  ‘mess’, common meals  required until the age of 30  Pressure to conform  ways to stop being a proper Spartiate  cowardice  poverty – join the ‘hypomeiones’/inferiors  prevented you from joining the army!  Spartan Military Society  Was Sparta a military society? (Yes and No)  Not training full time  BUT, hoplite warfare required obedience and communal cohesiveness (values instilled by Agoge)  Training did help  Helots allowed for more time to train  ‘Spartan Mirage’?  Austere Sparta?  Alleged rejection of wealth and luxury  militaristic society (‘Spartan lifestyle’)  Is this real?  NO, according to archaeology of Sparta  Monumental buildings  Pottery  Metalwork  Ivory carving  ‘Spartan Mirage’? The Persian Wars  Athenian Political Development  Dark Age  King becomes a limited term magistrate (power is taken over by land-holding elite)  Archaic Period  Citizen’s Assembly, Council (Boule), 3 Magistrates (Archons)  magistracies are ‘open’ to public (democratic machinery)  in reality, controlled by the aristocracy (Eupatridae)  peasant farmers (Georgoi) th  Late 7 century BC  Changing Athenian society  changing terminology reflects changes in Athenian society  Pentacosiomedimnoi – ‘500 bushel men’ (wealthy men)  Hipeis – ‘Horse men’ (maintaining a horse requires substantial funds as well)  Zeugitae – hoplite class (weaponry also costs)  Thetes – poor citizens  Age of Tyrants  begins in 625 BC – attempted coup of Athens by Cylon (champion returning from the Olympics)  unsuccessful  Athenian aristocracy realises that there is a threat to their power  aristocracy responds with  Laws of Draco (620s BC)  very harsh punishments (often death)  6 new Archons created to enforce all new laws  Reforms of Solon ( early 6 century BC)  economic and judicial reforms  economic reforms designed to help the poor without hurting the rish  tempered the harsh Draconian Laws  kept the laws but tempered the punishments  Tyranny of Peisistratus (c.560 BC)  DISTANT relative to Solon  Supposedly convinced entire Athenian population that he needed protection by beating himself up. Using the personal guard assigned to him, he took over government in Athens.  exiled in 555 BC  almost prevented by alliance with Megacles  returned in 547/6 BC and ruled until 527 BC, when he dies  fostered artistic and economic growth  remembered as a ‘law-abiding tyrant’  benign dictator  maintained democratic machinery, simply made sure allies filled the positions  succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus  classical example of second generation tyrants being generally bad as opposed to the generally good first generation  Removal of Hippias and the Rise of Cleisthenes  514 BC – conspiracy against Hippias and Hipparchus  conspirators: Harmodius and Aristogiton  succeed in killing Hipparchus  results in Hippias being increasingly paranoid and oppresive  510 BC – offer of assistance from Sparta in return for Athens joining Peloponnesian League  King Cleomenes removes Hippias in 510 BC  struggle for power in the power vacuum resulting from removal of Hippias  Isagoras  Isagoras had the support of the Spartans and the Spartan king  Athenians dislike how Sparta attempts to dictate how Athenian politics should play out  kick out Isagoras and welcome Cleisthenes  Reforms of Clisthenes  attempt to homogenise Athenian society  broke apart all old family loyalties, makes the state the only unifying source of loyalty in Athens  Persian Empire and (Persian King) Darius’ expansion into Thrace (512 BC and 492 BC)  troops sent  relatively small number, according to Persian standard  sent by ship  not designed for conquest  more a force to make a statement about Persian military might  First Persian Expedition  island hopping (Naxos, Euboea, then Athens) to punish those who supported the Ionians in their revolt  Athens  already expected the Persian troops  Bay of Marathon  point of entry into Athens chosen by Persians  The Persian Empire  expansionist by nature  army constantly adding to its territories, showing military strength  largely held together by fear  of the Persian King and his army  means that rebels always had to be punished (to maintain state of fear)  ergo, Persia had to punish Athens as a rebellious subject (and also to expand territories)  Battle at Marathon  Persians set up camp and wait to see what Athenians would do, raided various small communities in the meantime  Athens sends a runner to Sparta to ask for assistance  YES, external threat unifies Greek poleis  but Sparta doesn’t come right away  religious festival or helot rebellion – debated reasons  Athenians on their own, VICTORY  decide to face the Persians on their own despite vastly outnumbered force (2:1)  ran full on and used ‘pincer movement’ and defeat Persian army  ‘ran’ with 80kg Hoplite equipment?  What happened to the Persian cavalry?  surviving Persians retreat to ships and try to sneak attack city of Athens  Myth of Pheidippides  runner sent to Athens to proclaim victory and tell city to secure defences (think 300)  Persian forces finds city of Athens prepared to meet them, retreat back to Persia  Persians HAD to come back…  Themistocles’ Navy  decline of Miltiades  489 BC – Athenian expedition to Paros led by Miltiades (failure)  Miltiades put on trial after defeat, later exiled  Themistocles dominant in Athenian politics  uses ostracism to remove political rivals  pushes naval policies  483/2 BC silver strike  100 talents of silver found in Athenian mines in Attica (2600kg silver = $2.2million in present day)  Themistocles convinces Athenians to spend silver on ships  pre 490 BC – 24 ships  by 480 BC – over 200 ships  Unintended repercussions  change in Athenian political system  new people gaining economic power + military power = political power  Xerxes (successor of Darius) and the 2 Persian War  PERSIANS  aim: conquer all of Greece  advantages: big, mobile army (about 200,000 Persian troops); highly experienced navy  GREEKS  advantages: Greek unity, use of 3 main choke-points in Greece to prevent Persians from taking advantage of their larger numbers  Tempe  Thermopylae  Corinth  disadvantages: smaller army; not as experienced navy  Tempe  10,000-strong Greek troops arrived there, saw no army, marched back  first line of defence lost without a fight  Thermopylae  only about 7,000 troops sent (various excuses)  think: movie 300  Greeks lost smaller side pass to Persians  Persians march through and enter central Greece  Athens evacuated by sea  Athens burned to the ground  Battle at Salamis  Athenian navy destroys Persian fleet  this victory decided the war  Persian army started to starve without their food supply by sea  The Battle of Plataea  marks the end of the Persian war and Greek victory  Context (Spring of 497 BC)  Persians offer peace to Athens  condition: Athens to ally with Persia  in exchange for: Athenian dominance over all Greece, backed up by Persian super power  Athens declines!  one reason: Persians destroyed Athens, defiled their temples, stole their art  Athens pondering leaving Greece altogether and establishing a new colony elsewhere  if Athens left, they would take their navy with them = Spartans/Greece done for!  Greeks: 35 000 hoplites  Persians: 70 000 light troops  Greeks kill Persian commander and are victorious  Persians pushed out of Greece for good  ‘the beginning of the end of the Persian empire’ (falls after 100 years)  Athens gains a lot of prestige and respect for its part in the Greek victory over Persia.  Prytany = 1/10 of a year  Athenian equivalent of ‘month’  annual ostracism  if 6000 votes are cast, it becomes an official ostracism  person with majority of votes must leave Athens for 10 years (retains citizenship but must not return during the 10 year exile)  Spartan Meddling in Athenian Politics  508 BC – Cleomenes agrees to put Isagoras back in power in Athens  508 BC – Athenian embassy to Persia  Persians agree to ally against Sparta on condition that Athenians submits completely to Persian power  507 BC – Athens defeats a disorganized Peloponnesian League without Persian troops  repudiates treaty with Persia  504 BC – Cleomenes agrees to help Hippias, whom he had removed only a few years before  Peloponnesian League says no!  Cleomenes asks help from Persia  Persia says yes and tell Athens to install Hippias in power since they were in complete submission to Persian Power (treaty)  Athens says treaty was repudiated!  Ionian Revolt  Ionians under control of various Persian overlords  499 BC – revolt breaks out  Ionians ask Sparta for help (NO), ask Athens for help (YES)  Athens sends 20 ships with hoplites  498 BC – allies successful  497 BC – allies start to lose, might of Persia takes its toll Athens withdraws  Ionians lose  495 BC: Battle of Lade  494 BC: Miletus sacked  End result  Persians install constitutions to placate Ionians to avoid another revolt  Persians very angry with Athenians for helping out Ionians  Athens c. 500 BC  rise of Themistocles  rural nobility  appealed to many of the lower class  first serious democrat  elected to Archonship in 493/2 BC  appearance of Miltiades (491 BC) presents a hurdle to Themistocles’ rise to power in Athens  popular war hero from Ionia  powerful family and lots of money  all cut short by 491 BC when Persians return and demand submission of Greeks The Growth of Athenian Democracy  Aftermath of the Persian invasion  Athenian fortifications  Themistocles’ Walls  done in a rush, while negotiators were justifying reasons with Sparta  finished quickly – negotiations with Sparta cut off  Pericles and the ‘Long Walls’ of Athens  connects central city of Athens to Port of Piraeus  Amnesty of 480 BC  Themistocles ends up surrounded once again by political rivals he spent all his time getting rid off  return of Cimon and Aristeides  see Sparta as a possible ally of Athens in ruling Greece (as opposed to Themistocles’ distrust of Sparta)  Conservative resurgence of the 470s and 460s BC (pro-Sparta)  Themistocles ostracised in 470 BC  Conspiracy of Themistocles and Pausanias?  instigate a helot revolt to topple Sparta  Spartans sentence Themistocles to death  Themistocles flees and ends up in Persia  Despite being the head of the navy that defeated Persia, he is welcomed with open arms by the Persian King. Themistocles lives out the rest of his life as an honoured guest in the King’s court.  The Delian League  Pan-Hellenism  alliance of all Greek poleis that fought against Persians in 480 BC  led by Athens  used by Athenians to spread control over Greece  479 BC Second Ionian Revolt  Ionians ask for assistance  Sparta – NO  Athens – YES  Athens invites Ionians into Pan-Hellenic Alliance  Sparta strongly against this  Athens relents and makes…  NOTE  Peloponnesian League – Sparta and allies  Delian League – Athens and allies  Pan-Hellenic Alliance – Greek city-states that fought against Persians  476 BC: Creation of the Delian League  Athens is made the leader of the fleet/army, treasurer by the allies  468 BC – campaign into Eurymedon  Athenian Imperialist tendencies  allies begin to dislike staying in the permanent alliance (sending ships and money)  Carystus, Naxos and Thasos  cities that tried to leave the alliance  reeled back in by Athens and puts under a different ‘allies’ category  continue to pay but have no vote or say  Politics in Athens  460s BC: rise of the democrats in Athens  growing navy  growth of ‘rowing class’  growth in number of people who want leaders who represent their interests  earlier reforms  archons selected by lot  only elected officials are the 10 Tribal Generals  Ephialtes and Pericles (tribal generals)  endeavour to topple Cimon (Aristeides already dead, leaving Cimon in power in Athens)  Mt. Ithiome (Sparta asking for Athenian support, then changing mind)  humiliation of Cimon – ostracised later on  Ephialtes and Pericles in power  Ephialtes dies same year, Pericles left in charge  Reforms:  Aereopagus  power is taken away and is distributed throughout Citizens’ Assembly  Law Courts  juries are packed with the poor people in favour of Pericles  Citizenship  more conservative reform  both parents now need to be Athenian  anything passed by Citizens’ Assembly becomes law immediately  Greek Democratic Theory  Rule by majority  4 virtues of democracy  freedom  equality  moral benefits  freedom allowed citizens to act in a moral way (criticised by Plato)  rule of law  the majority is simply more important  minority will follow the law (by force), even if they voted against it  Polarization of Greek Politics  Athens (Delian League) vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian League)  struggle for supremacy  460-445 BC – ‘First’ Peloponnesian War  Megara  powerful trading city near Athens (sometimes allied to Athens)  Corinth and Aegina  Corinth – super power in Peloponnesian League  Attacks Megara  repelled by Athens – led to the building of Walls  Boeotia  Thebes  450 BC – Peace of Callias negotiated by Athens with Persia after its defeat by Persi
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