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University of Auckland
Political Studies
Dr.Smits, Professor Morrow,andotherguestlecturers

POLITICS 102 Plato The Republic  THE PERSON  an idealist  student of Socrates  PLATONIC PoV = SOCRATIC PoV  NOT A DEMOCRAT  but challenges key political ideas of Greek society in his time  mocked idea that democracy meant people had complete freedom  argued that it just meant they were slaves to their passions and whims  true freedom = being free of those passions/whims/desires and thus able to make the best decisions for one’s self  CONTEXT  classical Greek Athens  small ‘face-to-face’ society  culture of a ‘common life’  religion, sport and culture were all part of the common life of the city  no split between this public sphere and social life  only a small portion of the actual population were citizens participating in politics, even in democratic Athens  slaves, non-citizens had no political rights  women had no political or civic rights  Plato’s argument that they be Guardians was so controversial  citizens met regularly in the agora as the governing Assembly  Assembly = sovereign body in the city  people ruled directly  no election of representatives  500-person Executive Council selected by lot  politics as a positive activity essential to leading a good life and to virtue  ‘virtue’ in this period refers to civic, public behaviour, not private goodness  citizens – free men – believed they had a duty to take part in public life, including government  no concept of individual rights or the individual having rights against the state (e.g. privacy)  freedom didn’t come in the individual escaping the reach of the state but from participating in public life and government  women could not be free, as they could not participate in public life  on JUSTICE  Plato argues against 2 proposed definitions:  justice is giving people what they are due  justice is the right of the powerful  Plato ultimately defends Idealism, transcendental ideas about what is right and just, moral ideas independent of what the powerful few say  there are ideal moral rules and norms that exist in a transcendental sphere independent of human society  transcendental morals are the standards by which we judge the happenings in our world  Justice is equivalent to proper order.  on a JUST CITY  In a just city is a city in proper order where every person is doing what they are good at. Basically, there are 3 types of people:  BRONZE/IRON CLASS a.k.a. the workers  largest class – workers, farmers, artisans, those engaged in commerce  possess skills needed to maintain life  governed by material desires, desires to produce, acquire and collect things  SILVER CLASS a.k.a. the military auxiliaries  brave and spirited, best at defending the city  NOT governed by material desire  GOLD CLASS a.k.a. the wise rulers  possess knowledge, wisdom, restraint and judgement  best at governing and decision-making  NOT governed by material desire **Guardians = silver and gold classes **3-stage city is analogous to the just individual, where the passions and physical needs (bronze class) are strictly governed by the head or soul (reason, guardians). A just man is in harmony/proper order in himself.  In a just city, everyone knows their place in one of these 3 categories, and keeps to it because this is what they are suited for.  some mobility: where a child is born clearly of a different class to its parents, it must be given over to the right class of society.  A child born into the wrong class must not be allowed to corrupt it!  on WOMEN AS GUARDIANS  mind separate and independent of the body  women’s reproductive roles should be distinguished from other characteristics they might have, which might include bravery and spiritedness, and also wisdom and judgement.  If they displayed these, they should be cultivated like those of men  did NOT extend to other classes, only to Guardian Class women  argument seems to have been made to highlight the importance of the mind, not to promote feminism  on the EDUCATION OF THE GUARDIAN CLASS  communal upbringing  children born into the Guardian class should be taken away from their families and raised together  their commitment is not to themselves or their families but to the community/city  NOT allowed private property  would undermine their commitment to the common good  NOT free to make marital and sexual choices  They exist for a purpose – their personal happiness is not the important thing here, but the good of the city.  treating them instrumentally is OK as the goal is to produce the best rulers, not a bunch of happy people  ‘the community of women’  no permanent marriages – partners will be chosen by the wisest rulers based on how best to breed good future Guardians  unsuitable children born will be left to die (an early statement of eugenics)  censorship  they not be told stories about the gods behaving badly  might undermine their faith in and commitment to the civic good  Plato concludes that in the best political system, philosophers will be kings (and queens) because they love wisdom.  Plato’s CAVE  metaphorical explanation for his idealist philosophy  there exist real essences which exist independently of their particular realized forms in the world  In the story these are actual objects, but Plato also means ideas like truth, beauty, justice, goodness, which have essences that are separate from their particular instances.  these Ideas, Forms or real essences are eternal, and are not dependent upon our observation of particular cases, or how we see or construct the world around us  cave metaphor is also a defence of rule of the wise  those who achieve wisdom – who have seen the real essences of things, not just their shadowy, vague forms in the world around us, have true knowledge. However they must expect not to be understood by their fellows who have only seen the shadows.  Note also the birth imagery here – rebirth without women!  on CRITICISING DEMOCRACY  characterized by everyone participating and everyone governing  guarantees a kind of freedom for the people, ‘licence’ rather than liberty  LICENCE  a false freedom  doing whatever you like  people are actually enslaved by their passions, desires, interests, etc.  LIBERTY  ‘true freedom’  being able to govern yourself in a responsible way (e.g by living as a good citizen in a well- ordered city)  the common people please themselves, rather than thinking of the common good of the community  are motivated by their whims, interests and desires, rather than by wisdom  In democratic cities there is no order – synonymous with justice for Plato.  Because democratic cities are disordered, they are easy prey for tyrants.  Plato’s CONSTITUTIONS  ARISTOCRACY  rule by few (who are virtuous, etc.)  ‘class being corrupted’  more silver class people being born into the ruling class  TIMOCRACY  rule by few (warrior class who seek honour and glory, fundamentally good but not as wise as aristocrats)  ‘honour being corrupted’  more bronze class being born into ruling class  OLIGARCHY  rule by few (who prioritise money, selfish)  ‘money being corrupted’  masses rise up against the few rich  DEMOCRACY  rule by many, via a demagogue  ‘intention being corrupted’  chaos, disorder as masses aren’t all wise and suited to ruling like Guardian Classes  TYRANNY Aristotle The Politics  THE PERSON  one of Plato’s students, and a major critic of his teacher  concerned with the material world  believed that political philosophy depended upon the analysis of political and social relations  views on the role of politics and the citizen were much closer to those of democratic Athens  on JUSTICE  corrective justice (criminal)  differences should not be recognized  distributive justice (goods distribution)  difference (merit, birth etc) should be recognized  on TELOS  the true nature or essence of things and people are revealed in their ultimate purpose (e.g. The telos of an acorn is an oak tree.)  MALE TELOS  to be citizens  since men are ‘political animals’  FEMALE TELOS  to reproduce  since that is what they are biologically built for  They are inherently limited and flawed by their reproductive biology.  SLAVE TELOS  to be used as a tool by their  since their bodies are built for being used as tools  on Aristotle’s DEMOCRACY  men  essentially social  must participate in civic life as citizens in order to realize their true natures and their freedom  must rule and also have the experience of being ruled  women  cannot rule; must be ruled  if they are not controlled, they will undermine the state  by their tendency to licence and luxury  manual labourers (inc. slaves)  also excluded  leisure is required for politics  private property – which gives citizens a stake in their society – is also required  Aristotle’s democracy consists of property-owning gentlemen; mostly middle class men  on Aristotle’s CRITICISM OF THE GUARDIAN CLASS  all free men should have the experience of ruling and being ruled  private property and private family relationships do not corrupt free men, but rather allow them to develop the attachments that are necessary to social life  ties in with Aristotle’s view that the state is a natural development of other forms of human association, like the family.  Plato’s ideal state was characterized by extremism, rather than a healthy and stable moderation  advocates a ‘Golden Mean’  the importance of moderation and restraint  the good and virtuous citizen is moderate, not excessively rich or miserly  Aristotle’s CONSITITUTIONS  3 basic forms of government, each with a ‘right’ or good form and a ‘wrong’ or bad form  ‘right’ = aim at the common good  ‘wrong’ = not oriented to the common good RIGHT DEFINITION DEVIATION MONARCHY rule by one TYRANNY ARISTOCRACY rule by few OLIGARCHY POLITY rule by many DEMOCRACY  Monarchy  enlightened rule by one leader in the interests of the community and its material productivity  Tyranny  rule by a single leader not directed at the common good  Aristocracy  rule by the enlightened few with the same goals  Oligarchy  rule by the few, but of the wealthy rather than the virtuous  Polity  combination of aspects of democracy and oligarchy  to prevent the state from being captured by the interests of only one group in society  Democracy  rule by the many who are poor  on POLITY, the best constitution  mixture of oligarchy and democracy  compromise between recognizing the role of the wealthy and the more numerous poor  characteristic of his ‘middle constitution’  free from factions, which were regarded as destructive and destabilizing  a mixed constitution for stability  Aristotle warns against purest forms of any constitution, including democracy  represents Aristotle’s attempt to deal with the difficult problem that rule of the many should be in the interests of all, not just of the largest group, who are likely to be poor  on LIBERTY and EQUALITY  if liberty = ruling and being ruled  justified by the equality of citizens  in practice it means more power for the poor, as they are most numerous.  if liberty = doing as one likes  then we are suspicious of rule  Aristotle’s MORAL ECONOMY  economic life of society as embedded in, and intimately bound up with the various associations to which people belonged, moving up from the household, and the moral purposes of those associations  economic life in the polis was designed to support its political life, was regulated by political and moral purposes  ownership of property should be private, but its use and benefits should be common  As part of this, there were ‘natural’ profits that should be made, and ‘natural’ prices that should be charged.  natural purpose of money was to facilitate exchange, rather than to make a profit on itself, and therefore usury – charging interest on loans – was immoral St Thomas Aquinas Suma Theologica  THE PERSON  Italian  born in Naples  became a monk in the Dominican order  medieval order that stressed a lifestyle of poverty and simplicity  major work: Suma Theologica  unfinished when he died  became a saint about 50 years after his death  CONTEXT  late Medieval period  waning feudalism  ties of obligation and obedience were gradually shaken off  rise of autonomous regions that did not owe anything to any overlord  rise of the ‘state’  natural and inevitable (similar to Aristotle)  Christian world  The Fall from Grace (of humankind via Adam and Eve)  had fundamental impact on how Christians acted, thought in the world (including Aquinas)  the Jews as the chosen people  Jesus and the ‘new dispensation’  movement from focus on Jews as the chosen people to all humankind  the universal and the particular  focus on universal values that applied to the whole world  idea that universal values should be practiced in particular cities/communities, etc.  on THEOLOGY and PHILOSOPHY  Theology: the word of God  to do with human reflection on the meaning and implication of God’s Word  Philosophy: ‘right reason’  to do with human thought and reflection of human thought  human intelligence applied in a particular way, without taking anything from the ‘Christian experience’/without the benefit of Christianity  Aquinas admires Aristotle’s ideas on naturalism and the state, the human community, reason and law but says that the ideas are incomplete because they lack the insights which come from Christianity  ideas of Philosophy need to be informed by ideas in Theology  on THE STATE  is the consequence of sin  incorporation of Christianity into the state  idea that Rome was the ‘Eternal City’  St. Augustine’s argues that Rome was NOT the eternal city  in fact there are ‘2 Cities’  City of God  the city to which Christians/man will always belong  Earthly City/City of Man  something incidental, not central to Christian Mission  AQUINAS: it is essential to the Christian Mission  the state is fundamental to Christians as they move through this life  Social life and the Christian Mission  Cooperation  Protects and enriches human life  Education  People can gain knowledge of the natural world, moral knowledge, knowledge of justice, knowledge of God through the advances in theological concepts which occur in the social life in the state  Peace  Social life is a vehicle for enshrining peace, which is essential to Christians  ‘Political Rule’  essential to social life  CHARACTERISTICS  authority and control  to direct human effort so that it works in ways which yield the maximum benefit for social life  rulers = ‘helmsmen’ who guide members of the state towards the common good  may involve coercion, force to control things that hinder the movement towards the common good  ‘servile’ and ‘non-servile’ subjection  servile subjection  subjection of the slave to the master  maintained wholly for the good of the master, not the slave  non-servile subjection  which one finds in political communities  directed towards the common good  lays a premium on participation of members in the life of the community even while being directed by political superiors in certain matters  justice  outcome of the right and wise exercise of political authority  system of regulation which recognises the claim of individuals but integrates this in a way that leads to the common good  The public realm  on UNIVERSAL ORDER  The role of God  is the creator of the universe  is the ‘owner’ of the entire creation  implies control  Nature and God’s intentions  world wasn’t created randomly  human beings have an obligation to figure out what this purpose is and to life lives that advance this purpose  universal order is dynamic in that it involves human participation  The natural is good because God has created it so.  on LAW  Universal order is governed by law  a rational ordering of things which concern the common good, promulgated by whoever is charged with the care of the community  Necessary to give structure, meaning, and direction towards the intentions of God (the ‘true good’)  assists human beings in ways which move them nearer to the ‘true good’  God’s intentions for Creation is systematised in law  on RIGHT REASON  Utilisation of intellectual faculties for particular reasons  Smart thinking directed towards a certain purpose:  The pursuit of human perfection – the goal that God has in mind for humanity  Allows human beings to be active participants in pursuing God’s plan  Key quality which political leaders should posses  Leaders are required to exercise right reason to ensure that their actions are conducive to the realisation of human perfection/God’s will  on the DIFFERENT KINDS OF LAW  The Hierarchy of Law  Eternal law – God and the universe  Divine law – God and the individual  form of law that does not have a direct bearing on the lives of individuals as members of a community  focus: individual believer in their relationship as Christians with God NOT with the community  Natural law – right reason and humankind  Human law – the ruler and the community  Eternal Law  rational will of God  much of Eternal law is unknown to human beings (known completely to God alone)  not completely comprehended by humans  it is the ultimate source of all legitimate human regulation  Natural Law  what humans understand EL to be  derived using right reason  to further the good of humankind  applies to all human beings regardless of nationality and religion  aims to  preserve human life  promote ‘natural instincts’ consistent with obligations to God  procreation, maintaining human race, nurturing children  identify a distinctive form of human good  not really imposed upon them but imposed upon themselves (VOLUNTARY)  deriving NL statements from EL statements…  EL statement: what God has created should be preserved  NL statement: humans have an obligation to promote preservation and prevent destruction  secondary NL statement: human obligation to avoid harming others, to assist and care for them  Human Law  application of NL to society  community-specific way of organising human effort in a specific way so that humans flourish and function in a way aligned to NL/EL  aims to maintain peace, provide guidance on human conduct, propagate interpersonal justice, control, punish those who break HL  sourced in human agency (human beings – rulers, etc.)  right reason and moral will  some CASE STUDIES  Private Property – can PP rights be justified in terms of NL and ultimately EL?  YES but conditionally  general right: Human beings have a right to take natural goods from the earth and use them but humans in general, NOT belonging to specified individuals, non-exclusive no one has a right to exclude  right of general access NOT PP rights  specific right: private property and human law >>> PP rights justified by NL in that it is conducive to human harmony and peace in society  provides incentive for people to be productive  incentives, specialisation, harmony  BUT PP rights are conditional to the requirements of NL  conditions being charity, regulation for the public good  Just War – whether war can in any circumstances be justified? YES if it is necessary to protect the innocent, punish the guilty and uphold NL  Authorisation  It must be authorised by political superiors  Must be an act of state, NOT a private act  Cause  Must be a just cause  Must be significant injustice to justify just war  Only just if it is the last resort  Intention  Those that embark on war must themselves be just  Objectives (derived from NL)  Protect innocent  Maintain justice  Punish large scale wrong doing  Secure peace and justice  on the LEGITIMACY OF LAW  laws are only justified if they serve the purposes of NL and ultimately EL  if the above is true, it produces legitimate authority and obligation of people to obey them  but people have an obligation to disobey bad/un-Christian laws  The force of law  ‘directing’ force of law  rulers are subject to this  it should direct their conduct  Have an moral obligation to maintain and obey law themselves  ‘constraining’ force of law  applied to subjects by rulers  force is justified when needed to maintain law  on enforcing EL/NL embodied in HL through GOVERNMENT  3 general forms of regime (just and unjust form) (following Aristotle)  Kingship—Tyranny  Aristocracy—Oligarchy  Polity—Democracy  WHICH IS IDEALLY the best?  KINGSHIP/MONARCHY  Direction  Those with superior qualities should guide and direct those with inferior qualities  Gives a definite direction to the community  Unity  Sense of unity, goes in a single direction, symbolic sense of cohesion in the King  Peace  And stability  Less people clamouring for the leadership = peace  …IS ALSO IDEALLY the worst  TYRANNY  Injustice  A single minded, concerted, systematic pursuit of injustice  Tyrants are removed from any idea of community interest  Society of slaves (servile subjection NOT rational subjection)  Depravity  System in which evil/anti-virtue rules  Discord  Tyrants shun peace  some SAFEGUARDS FOR MONARCHY  Institutional constraints  ‘mixed’ government: democratic, aristocratic and monarchical principles  Monarchy with mixed elements  Kings govern in collaboration with a few wise subjects elected by the people as a whole  Resistance  Subjects should resist monarchs when they become tyrannical subject to 2 conditions:  Prudence  Resistance must take a form that is not more terrible than the tyranny  Prudence must always be exercised  Only when tyranny is worse than resistance is it justified  if the outcome of resistance is better than tyranny, resistance is justified  public authority  Princely virtue  Character of the ruler/prince is very important  Virtuous  Educated in ways that encourage virtue and protect them against vice  Surround themselves by good advisers, not advisers who tempt them  temporal and heavenly rewards Christine de Pizan  THE PERSON  born in Venice  originally Italian  ‘first professional female writer in France’  many of her tales were allegorical and challenged the inferiority of the female sex  CONTEXT  War and Civil War in France  The Hundred Years’ War (1338-1453)  France vs England  claims that English Crown owned land that French Kings thought were theirs  prolonged bitter period of conflict  1380 Civil War  Charles V (her father was his doctor) died, succeeded by Charles VI (MINOR, child)  showed signs of ill mental health  questions to his succession to the throne  question of Regency (someone else in the family to rule on behalf of Charles VI)  Charles VI’s mother’s (Isabeau) claim rejected as she was a woman and women were not fit to rule  Women and Political Authority in the Late Medieval Period  Aristotle: mind/body analogy  males : mind :: women : body  women should be subjected to men, were superior to slaves but inferior to men th th  Salic Law: 6 century, revived in the 14  applied to all states under Roman rule  prevented any state being governed by a woman  Medieval views on Gender and rationality  female rule is not legitimate because it leads to some form of irrationality  Female virtue in medieval literature  Apoliticised virtue  society recognised that women had some degree of rationality and virtue but these were directed only towards the domestic sphere  on PRUDENCE  motivation to find and pursue what is right in the context of the common good  ‘the mother and guide of all virtues’  key attribute of political leaders  DE PIZAN: it is an attribute of the human race, independent of gender  Women in politics not restricted to governing  may include teachers, advisors and leaders  on the BODY POLITIC and the PRINCE  political community can be likened to a human body  different parts that help it to function properly  raises questions about the ‘health’ of the community and the relation of the different parts of the body politic  ASPECTS of her arguments  Classes in an organic society: hierarchy and interdependence  all classes are hierarchical but interdependent  all roles are essential, even the ‘common people’  The idea of political leadership: prudence and virtue  importance of the prince/leader exercising prudence and virtue in behaviour, character, intellect and choice of advisers  Christine stresses the importance of the personal qualities of the head of the state  rulers must be specially virtuous, are ‘super human’ beings but have something in common with their subjects (virtue)  all share the same virtues but ruler’s is especially refined, developed  generally, MEDIEVAL POLITICAL THEORY talks of…  flourishing of humankind as the main goal  importance of characteristics of rulers  virtue  on THE POLITICISATION OF FEMALE VIRTUE  Female education and its political implications: women as advisors  Women and political authority: Isabeau of France and Elizabeth of England Niccoló Machiavelli  THE PERSON  writings focus of the experience of the Italian city states  well-educated citizen of the Florentine Republic  CONTEXT  Italian City States  Republics – cities that rule themselves, those not subject to the power of external agencies (Roman emperor, Pope, etc.)  FORMS  ‘popular’  embraces a significant number of the populace  aristocratic  dominance of the city is limited to a few people in the city  dominance is hereditary  Principalities – ruled by princes (a single ruler, may be a Duke, Bishop, actual Prince)  FORMS  ecclesiastical  governed by clerical people  secular  governed by non-clerical people  hereditary and new  hereditary principalities  Principality is inherited by the new ruler from the previous ruler  new principalities  usually a Republic becoming a Principality when one seizes power  constant regime change  Principalities becoming Aristocratic Republics, Republics becoming Principalities  atmosphere of instability, changeability  constant struggle for power – internal and external interference  unstable regimes  significant events  c1450:Medici gain control of Florence  1494: Medici evicted: restoration of the republic  1494-1512: Machiavelli as public servant  1512: Spanish Invasion: Medici restored  1513: Machiavelli’s arrest  as an anti-Medician conspirator, later released  works were written after this event  Medici  connected to the Pope  turned Florentine Republic into a Principality ruled by the head of the Medici clan  WORKS  The Prince  text on Principalities  the challenge of princely ambition  MAIN CONCERN: how can Princes maintain control of their states  a good ruler maintains control of his state  regime maintenance as the primary pre-condition for any other political action  Discourses  text on Republics (specifically the Republic of Rome)  Rome as the model Republic  MAIN CONCERN: how can Republics maintain themselves in the face of internal and external challenges  BOTH WORKS  the problem of political ‘corruption’  ‘corruption’ as the internal erosion of regimes  ‘corruption’ as the inevitability of change in human affairs (organic things rot)  change is an unavoidable feature of human life  how can we resist it or slow it down?  answers lie in history  Machiavelli studies history of political communities  identifying lessons which can be used in maintaining states in the present and in the future  on HUMAN NATURE  Discourses: One should ‘take for granted that all men are evil and that they will always express the wickedness of their spirit whenever they have the opportunity’.  The Prince: ‘One can generally say this about men: that they are ungrateful, fickle, simulators and deceivers, avoiders of danger, greedy for gain…’  MACHIAVELLI: If you want to be an effective ruler of a state  You must always operate on the basis that man will behave badly (it is human nature)  effective rulers can mould the behaviours/character of the people in their state through education, ‘good’ laws, civic relition/religion directed towards the interests of the political community  they can create a second nature  characteristics that override human nature and are conducive to the good of the community  makes it easier for rulers to maintain their state  on REGIMES  ‘Good’ and ‘corrupt’  Principality/tyranny  gov't by one person in the interest of the whole/own interest  Aristocracy/oligarchy  gov't by select few in interest of whole/own interest  Democracy/anarchy  gov't by many in interest of whole/non-government and chaos  Cycle of change: P>T>A>O>D>An>P etc.  Principality being corrupted > Tyranny  toppling of Tyranny by select, virtuous few > Aristocracy > corruption of aristocrats > Oligarchy  oligarchs abuse people > people rise up > Democracy  Democracy is unstable > descends into a non-government, chaos > saved by a leader > Principality  solutions to corruption of purer forms of gov’t and maintaining gov’t  MIXED CONSTITUTION  Roman government as an example (Consuls; Senate; Tribunes)  has elements of monarchy, aristocracy, and popular gov’t/democracy  ‘Good laws’  molds human behaviour to be less destructive  on FORTUNA  non-human or human force  luck-favour/help/threat  conditions or circumstances not created by actor/ruler  likened by Machiavelli to  a wheel  a woman (fickle)  a source of insecurity and opportunity  and we must act accordingly to these unstoppable, unpredictable events  reaction vs prevention  stress by Machiavelli on rulers to be ACTIVE not passive  only way to keep Fortuna in check or to benefit from it  on VIRTÙ  ability, skill, energy, determination, prowess, strength, courage  all to do with human action  action and fortuna  action gives us some prospect of controlling Fortuna, the impact of unstoppable, uncontrollable events  Virtú and politics  covers all actions, character of political rulers  essential set of qualities that political participants should posses  will allow for regimes to be maintained but never a fool proof response  limitations of virtú: the sad case of Duke Valentino (p.186)  Duke Valentino (Cesare Borgia) inherited the state because of his father’s fortune and lost it in the same manner despite having used every means a prudent and skillful man ought to use in order to secure himself in those states  that he did not succeed in his plan was not his fault but was instead the result of an extraordinary and extreme instance of ill fortune  on CHALLENGES FACING THE PRINCE (agents of Fortuna)  ‘people’ – population as a whole  fickle, deceitful, ignorant, ungrateful, averse to change, not particularly ambitious  capable of being molded by the Prince to be useful to him  CHALLENGE: turn a threat into an opportunity, turn the people from risks to allies  nobility  rich, vain, ambitious, have powerful foreign friends  military  external actors  other princes, emperors, republics  very difficult for the Prince to control  poses direct military threat and threat to internal stability  on the MANNER OF ACQUISITION  New/inherited  New Princes face particularly sharp problems.  They are innovators who change the status quo  innovation, in itself disturbs the internal stability  will upset people who were influential in the old regime  Free/unfree  Princes are likely to be safer if they take over areas already ruled by a Prince instead of free Republics  ‘Feudal/centralized  Feudal state is much harder to control than a highly centralized state  on the PRINCELY CONTROL  control of subjects  fear not love  different from Medieval idea when Princes ought to win the favour of his subjects  if people fear us, we have control over them; if we depend on their love, they control us  avoid being hated – FEAR NOT HATRED, fear and cool respect  hatred breeds contempt  over-mighty subjects/nobles common people  need to be consistently checked and kept in a state of fear (Machiavelli has many examples of acts of violence against nobles)  general populace need to be soothed, placated  external control  ally yourself with weak external parties so that you can control them  strong parties can control you  maintain self-reliance  on the MILITARY  Mercenaries : the ‘condottieri’  Mercenaries are self-interested, loyalty is constantly changing  Control of Prince is very fragile as it is based only on money  Princes who rely on mercenaries will not survive  Auxiliaries  worse than mercenaries as they owe their loyalty elsewhere  Native troops: ‘militia’  best option  Sense of commitment to the state  will value the Prince as long as he is an effective protector/ruler of the state  under the total control of the Prince  MACHIAVELLI’s Prince vs AQUINAS’/DE PIZAN’s Christian Prince  The Christian Prince  Character: the ‘soul of the body politic’  Virtues: wisdom, temperance, fortitude, liberality/generosity, mercy, faithfulness (Christian virtues)  Overlap of Public and private virtue  A good Prince is also a good person  Higher level of responsibility than subjects but same, good virtues  Conventional Virtues of Christian Prince vs Machiavellian Princely Virtú  Generosity/beneficial meanness  Conventional generosity is a liability, will be the downfall of the Prince  Best way for Princes is to be very critical of their use of wealth  The Prince is a public figure and therefore how he uses his resources must align with the interests of the government/state  Clemency/strategic cruelty  Faithfulness/selective deception  Transparency/appearance  Piety/instrumentalism and ‘civic’ religion  on POLITICAL MORALITY  Machiavellian political morality can be viewed as set of values the emerge from the same stem as conventional virtues but are applied in a different way  good princes must learn how not to be good!  must learn distinctive attributes that are required by the challenges they face  institutional and non-personal  good of the state – longevity, popular welfare, civic sense, security, glory  non-personal goals  Republics: common good, patriotism, military effectiveness, participation and general activism, ‘glory’  Principalities: popular welfare, patriotism, security, military effectiveness, princely glory: power and glory Thomas Hobbes  THE PERSON  tutor to aristocratic Cavendish family  briefly tutored Charles II in 1640s  National crisis, political response  core of his political theory is contained in three of his books, one of which is the  Leviathan, (1651)  printed in English for his countrymen (wider audience reached)  supposedly published in support of Cromwell (Hobbes denies this)  pushing religion to the margins  causes instability  should be a private matter  arguably the first philosopher to write systematically about the state  ‘the body politic’ as a phrase used to describe a community  see cover image of coursebook  body/chainmail of the king is made up of the people  suggests that the body politic is natural, like the human body  but if it were truly natural, it would not need a metaphor to the body  Christine de Pizan’s body politic (The Body Politic)  political community ‘like a living body’  Prince – head  Nobility – arms  People – legs  Well-being of each part is essential for the whole  Healthy ‘head’ = virtue, not just power  Each part knows its place  Natural rule/hierarchy/subjection  saw the body politic as an artificial body created by men, not given by nature or God  CONTEXT  early capitalism  Trade routes being opened  First American colonies being founded  Rise of ‘middling sort’  those outside the traditional landed circles  claims to share power with landed classes  Renaissance ‘humanism’  Revived interest in Greek and Roman classical writings  Rebirth of classical learning  Republicanism  European Reformation  Western Christianity divided: Roman catholic kingdoms and Protestant kingdoms  Thirty Years’ War to 1648  English Civil War (a.k.a. English Revolution)  supporters of King Charles I vs supporters of Cromwell  1642-1649 - Charles I executed  Interregnum: Cromwell  Leviathan 1651  Restoration 1660  Hobbes says any government that secures peace and stability is better than ‘the miseries, and horrible calamities, that accompany a civil war’ (231)  ‘the world is turned upside down’  Residues of the Renaissance and the English Revolution heavily influenced Hobbes’ text  destabilised society  on THE STATE  differs from the government, or ruler  an artificial man, an artificial creation of humans  duties of subjects are owed to the state, not the ruler  state protects the citizens, citizens uphold the laws, etc.  men create the state to escape their ‘state of nature’  on the STATE OF NATURE  men are naturally equal and free  core aim: self-preservation  individual can’t risk being sociable – may be taken advantage of  but individual also can’t risk doing nothing – they won’t gain security  all have a ‘right of nature’  allows men in nature to do and take what they want  unsustainable  they come into conflict for reasons of competition, ‘diffidence’ and ‘glory’  ‘state of nature’ = war, continual fear, danger and violence  ‘without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition called war…and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short’ (ch. 13)  on the SOCIAL CONTRACT  reason  shows need to covenant with others to agree transfer of right of nature to sovereign – their ‘representative’  the social contract  between men, not with sovereign  agreement between each man to gift the right of nature (power) to sovereign  can be actual or implied  all assumed to consent  the Sovereign  can be one, few, many  monarchy, aristocracy, popular commonwealth/democracy  same power/authority regardless of form  is/are the representative of the whole people who will make decisions, resolve disputes, etc.  ‘whole body of the people’ does not exist until there is a sovereign to represent it  STILL, Hobbes sees monarchy (not democracy) as most effective  a single sovereign will be less liable to discord than multiple people  Hobbes’s ABSOLUTISM  transfer of power absolute, complete and unaccountable on earth  Sovereign makes laws and decides disputes, having responsibility to secure peace – bound only by conscience  limit to the ‘absolute sovereign’ is where subject’s life is threatened by state  contract is broken as basis of consent was to ensure self-preservation  If a sovereign in unable to protect the life of the subject, the subject can exchange loyalties to a different (conquering) sovereign – defence of Cromwell?? Locke  THE PERSON  social contract theorist like Hobbes  Protestant/Christian  clearly associated with the forces of Parliament (as opposed to supporters of monarchy)  work is a defense of limited government by consent of the people  government must always be consented to by the people  government must always be limited  government must always protect individual rights  key founder of modern liberal thought  fundamental liberal concepts are central to his political philosophy  government by consent  limited state power  individual liberty and autonomy  private property  separation of church and state  Locke’s influence upon politics and ideas is extensive  legitimized emerging capitalism  justified constitutional limits on the power of the monarchy in Britain  shaped the political thinking of the early founders of the American republic, particularly Jefferson.  his theory of property forms the basis of both classical liberal economics and Marx’s analysis of capitalism.  CONTEXT  1640-1660  England a Commonwealth governed by Cromwell  time of social, political, and religious revolutions (Protestant reformation)  period of enormous internal conflict – social, political, religious – coinciding with a huge change in economics (emergence of capitalism)  wrote shortly after Hobbes, and was closely involved in post-Civil War politics  worked for Lord Shaftesbury, a Protestant Whig political leader in Parliament opposed to the Stuart monarchy of the Restoration. Charles II and his successor James II claimed their right to rule by ‘divine right.’  TEXT  First Treatise of Government – attack on the patriarchalist arguments of Sir Robert Filmer  Filmer argued that the right of monarchs to rule was conferred ultimately by God to Adam, and acquired by descent. It was similar to the ‘absolute’ paternal power granted to fathers over their families.  Second Treatise  written when the Whigs were trying to exclude James II from the throne  Ultimately, Locke’s side prevailed: James II abdicated, and in the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688, Parliament brought in William of Orange and his wife Mary – Protestants who were prepared to acknowledge the rights of Parliament.  asserts that political society and political power are fundamentally different from other forms  government derives legitimacy from popular consent.  Unlike Hobbes, Locke argues that the power of government is limited, and that people retain rights to withdraw their consent from it.  On the STATE OF NATURE  ‘state of nature’  = men are at liberty/free as there is no government BUT  = men subordinated to a higher law, God’s law  no scarcity of resources, no immediate conflicts  LOCKE: all human beings are God’s creations, their lives always subject to God  They cannot kill or enslave themselves or others.  no-one had the right to harm any other (one of the most important fundamental laws of nature)  Human beings in a state of nature live thus in liberty, but not licence.  Their dealings with each other are governed by God-given reason.  Lockean individuals are rational and peaceful.  The state of nature is not a state of war, although all have the right to defend themselves.  individuals have natural rights to life, liberty and property.  social contract formed out of the ‘state of nature’ is between the people and the government and is resultant of the lack of an effective way to punish those who wrong you (property disputes)  On PROPERTY  property rights are crucial to the reason people choose to leave the state of nature.  given by God to all equally in nature, and is held in common (‘the commons’)  owned in common with everyone having equal rights to use it  only works as long as there is no scarcity  PURPOSE: satisfy human needs  God-given rationality requires people to use and improve it.  This means that individuals must appropriate the land – establish private property.  Initially, they have private property only in their own bodies.  mixing labour transfers a little bit of ourselves into the unclaimed property in ‘the commons’ makes it part of ourselves and like our bodies, makes it our private property  When they appropriate the land, they mix this private ownership with it, and transfer their rights to the land. Thus the origin of private property rights is in the labour individuals use to appropriate or improve land and raw materials.  labour removes the unclaimed property from the commons even without the agreement of everyone else  Locke assumes however that the labour of a man’s horse and servant transfer property rights to their master.  because there exists a contractual relationship (agreement) between the master and servant  BUT, in a state of nature there are no contractual relationships! – inconsistency in Locke’s theory  Critics have pointed out that employment contracts seem mysteriously already to exist in the state of nature.  BUT unlimited appropriation of property is prohibited: Locke argues that God has given people property to enjoy (use), not to ‘spoil or destroy.’ The limits are:  People must take only so much as they need  they must leave ‘enough and as good’ left in the commons for others  they cannot take so much as to allow things to spoil  Locke is against Monarchy  monarchs as a religious tool: ‘God’s appointed ruler on earth.’ – but which god?  on MONEY  As long as people take only what they need in the state of nature, there will be no conflict. However this is all changed by the introduction of money.  Money is fungible – can be changed into anything else despite it not having an intrinsic value  Money does not spoil – people can use it to accumulate property beyond their needs.  This changes things in the state of nature – introducing greed and competition.  People become jealous of their private property claims, and disputes arise.  In the state of nature there is no independent arbiter to settle these.  The state is formed by the social contract to adjudicate property disputes.  on the STATE  formed to adjudicate property disputes  formed to protect the life, liberty and property of individuals. (Note that Locke includes ownership of our own persons – our bodies – in his understanding of property.)  ergo, the state cannot take individuals’ property  ergo, the state is limited  a Lockean (Libertarian) kind of state  non-interventionist, limited state that does not regulate our economic and moral lives  People transfer to the state their natural right to enforce the law of nature in order to protect themselves and their property.  With the formation of the state, settled and public laws are established, agreed to by all, to deal with property disputes, and impartial judges are empowered to make decisions.  However, the power of the state is always limited by its inherent purpose, and ‘can never be supposed to extend further than the common good.’ Government is not above the law, but is regulated by it (another fundamental liberal principle.)  This is a limited or ‘night-watchman state,’ not intended to take an activist role in regulating private and social life.  Sovereignty is fundamentally located in the people or commonwealth, which appoints those who will exercise legislative power; whether this is the many (a democracy,) a few (oligarchy) or one person (monarchy.) Power cannot be exercised arbitrarily, as individuals could not exercise arbitrary power in nature.  This idea is the cornerstone of modern liberal constitutional thought.  In practice, this means that the state cannot destroy, enslave or impoverish its citizens.  Note the differences to Hobbes here: for Locke the state cannot expropriate the property of citizens, and it is limited by the law that it makes.  This was a very influential argument on the American revolutionaries, who were taxed without being represented in Parliament.  Government is considered to be dissolved (i.e., illegitimate) when it makes laws which are not authorized by the people.  In those cases, civil disobedience is justified.  Locke clearly has James II’s refusal to cooperate with Parliament in mind here.  Although government is dissolved, the commonwealth is not.  Society is not destroyed, but continues as it existed in nature, until the people transfer their legislative power into the hands of a new government.  Locke responds to the criticism that he is justifying frequent revolutions, saying there must be ‘a long train of abuses, prevarications and artifices’ by which power is illegitimately exercised over the people, before they may rebel.  on (negative) LIBERTY  Locke’s conception of liberty is negative: people must be free from the control of others – other individuals and the state.  They do not exercise their liberty through a commitment to public virtue, or by participation in government (ruling or being ruled.)  In this classical liberal view, politics is not a fundamentally human or virtuous activity – it exists only for the purpose of protecting the freedom of individuals, and their right to enjoy their private property.  on RELIGION  Locke is also a very influential early defender of religious toleration – the idea that the state should not legislate people’s religious beliefs and activities.  In the US, this is referred to as the ‘separation of church and state.’  This is consistent with his view that the state was not responsible for enforcing morality among its citizens.  In his Letter Concerning Toleration (revised in several versions), Locke argues that the Church and the commonwealth are radically separate.  The state cannot supervise or interfere with religious beliefs or observances except when they threaten people’s personal security or property. Religious bodies and ministers cannot interfere with people’s civil rights.  Religious belief or observance cannot be enforced by the state.  Religious bodies have no
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