BIOL 1003- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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BIOL 1003
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to
the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the
earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics,
from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be
a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “Earth science” is a broad
term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down
into more specialized fields.
There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of
the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth
to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human
activity on Earth's environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their
knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan
communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale
structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology,
and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves.
Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and
watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists
study earthquakes and try to predict where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help
to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists mainly work “in the field”—climbing mountains,
exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps. They measure and
collect samples (such as rocks or river water), then they record their findings on charts
and maps.
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PROKARYOTIC CELLS
Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological
processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic
cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus. Prokaryotes include two of the domains of
life, bacteria and archaea. The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct
contact with the cytoplasm. The nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called the nucleoid. Most prokaryotes
are the smallest of all organisms ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 µm in diameter.[13]
A prokaryotic cell has three architectural regions:
Enclosing the cell is the cell envelope generally consisting of a plasma membrane covered by a
cell wall which, for some bacteria, may be further covered by a third layer called a capsule. Though most
prokaryotes have both a cell membrane and a cell wall, there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma
(bacteria) and Thermoplasma (archaea) which only possess the cell membrane layer. The envelope gives
rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from its environment, serving as a protective
filter. The cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against exterior
forces. It also prevents the cell from expanding and bursting (cytolysis) from osmotic pressure due to a
hypotonic environment. Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall.
Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various
sorts of inclusions.[3] The genetic material is freely found in the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes can carry
extrachromosomal DNA elements called plasmids, which are usually circular. Linear bacterial plasmids
have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus Borrelia
notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.[14] Though not forming a nucleus, the DNA is
condensed in a nucleoid. Plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes.
On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell's surface. These are structures (not present in
all prokaryotes) made of proteins that facilitate movement and communication between cells.
EUCARYOTIC CELLS
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