[ANT 1430] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 17 pages long Study Guide!

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ANT 1430
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Anthropology lecture 2
What is evolution
Change over time
Evolutionary view:
Species change and have changed over time
Species have a common origin
Types of evolution
Macroevolution
Emergence of new species
Rare
Large-scale changes, longer time period
Microevolution
Change over time in populations
Constantly happening
Normally small scale changes, short time period
James Ussher
Irish archbishop
Calculated the age of the earth from the Bible
October 23, 4004 B.C.
John Ray
British naturalist and theologian
Believed in the fixity of species
Species does not change
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2
First defined species and genus
What are species?
Reproductive isolation
Do not interbreed and produce viable offspring
Overall appearance
Individuals resemble each other
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish naturalist
Developed first formal classification system of all known living
organisms
Included humans in his classification of animals
Homology and Analogy
Homologous traits:
A similar feature in two or more species that is the result of
common descent
Analogous traits:
A similar feature between organisms with similar function but not
common descent
Convergence
The process of independent evolution of similar features from
different features in their last common ancestor
Georges-Louis Leclerc/Buffon
French Biologist
Nature as a dynamic system of processes
External environment as an agent of change in species
Erasmus Darwin
British physician and naturalist
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