[BIO 1801] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 18 pages long Study Guide!

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BIO 1801
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
characteristics of life
abiotic: non living
biotic: living
DNA: tells life what to do - in living organisms
Seven Characteristics of living things
Cells and Organization
cells are the fundamental unit of organization
all living things have cells
Energy use and metabolism and homeostasis
Response to environmental changes
Regulation and homeostasis
Growth and development
Reproduction
Biological evolution
living organisms are constantly responding to the environment
Organization is key
atoms
all living thing composed of atoms
molecules
macromolecules
organelle
things that make up the cell
ex. chloroplast
cell
tissue
organ
organsystem
organism
species
individually unique from each other
population
all the same species in the same place at the same time
community
ecosystem
biosphere
Evolution as a driving force of change
evolutionary changes involves modifications of characteristics in pre existing
populations
structures may be modified to serve new purpose
two mechanisms of evolutionary change
vertical decent with modification
progression of change in a lineage
new species evolve from preexisting species
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decent with modification
mutation: a change in DNA which can be passed on to the next generation
Natural selection: if mutation occurs and is beneficial, it will be continued to be passed
on
favorable traits
charles darwin
Horizontal Gene Transfer
gene: section of DNA, directs things to happen
relativel rare
exchange between different species
genetic transfer from one to another
ex. antibiotic resistance gene transfers to another species e. e-coli
HGT does not require common decent
Genomes and Proteomes
genome: the complete genetic makeup of an organism
genomics: Techniques used to analyze DNA sequences in a genome
proteomes: the complete complement of proteins that a cell or organism can
make
the genome carries the information to make its proteome
proteomics: techniques used to analyze the proteome of a single species and the
comparison of proteomes of different species
Classifications
taxonomy: the grouping of species based on common ancestry
3 domains
bacteria: unicellulata prokaryote
archaea: unicellular prokaryote
Eukarya: unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes
4 Kingdoms
protista
fungi
plantae
animalia
Taxonomy Allows Study of Life
A species is placed into progressively smaller groups that are more closely
related to evolutionarily
approach emphasizes the unity and diversity of different species
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