[HIS 1700] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (16 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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HIS 1700
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Making Europe, mccray
Thurs. Jan 19. 2017
Setting the stage: religion and society at the end of the Middle Ages
(discussing assigned text reading: introduction, argument emphasis on
religion transitioned into focus on thought and reason)
PEASANT POPULATION
- 80-90% of Europeans were peasants, living in rural areas.
- Most dependent on agriculture.
- Community organizations varied.
- Most lived in villages of 400-800 people.
- Feudalism: landowners gave protection to peasants, who worked their
lands. (king, aristocrats(lords), peasants(serfs))
- Fealty -
- By 1600, most peasants were free or semi-free from serfdom.
- Black death- plague- arrived from asia to parts of Europe 1348,
reduced population by 40%. Decreased labor available. Plague was
huge component in the fade out of feudalism.
- Early modern time (1500-1700) most or many serfs were freed
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
- Most peasant farming was subsistence farmingnot production for
market.
- Produce for towns, cities, and courts came from large estates of
nobles (aristocrats aka duke, knight, etc.) or Church.
- Farming methods: open field system, crop rotation
- Big change between feudal farming and commercial agriculture: is the
removal of common ground or common pasture area
- Stable (stagnant) productivity limited population growth.
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2
- Malthus ^ he was the first political economist to observe the
relationship between resources and population.
FAMILY AND WORK
- Family = basic unit of labor
- Marriage based on economic advantage
- Dowry ^ from the woman, a man would have to have land. Without a
dowry, she would probably be put in a convent. Marriage to merge
farms. Wealthy people would marry to expand land or political
influence.
- Child labor needed and valued
- Some choice about what to do when
- Work was social and collective
- Work interrupted by feasts and festivals up to 80 days a year
PEASANT CULTURE
- World was small
- Few peasants could read or write
- Village priest did the reading or writing if it was needed
- Peasants spoke ethnic (vernacular) languages not Latin
- Peasants spoke languages: French, English, Spanish, etc.
- Priest and landowner main links to outside world
- Oral culture linked generations and forged identities, germans with
their folk tales or scotts with their clans&plaids
- Religious beliefs dominated world view
- Illuminated manuscripts
- Scholasticism
URBAN LIFE
- Big city population 10,000 20,000
- Spectrum of material life, social class, and educational level
- Centers of economic, political, intellectual, and artistic activity
- Breeding grounds for disease- infant diarrheas very common, measles
- Quarantine ships kept from harboring for 40 days
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