SOC 1110 Final: test 3 - final

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Appalachian State University
SOC 1110
Kristin Smith Ivey

Acts of kindness assignment Social exchange theory (being kind to someone and in return receive kindness) Symbolic interactionism REWARDS OF DIFFICULTIES OF PARENTING • Role conflict: this is what happens when two or more roles contradict each other o 2 or more statuses • Role strain: involves conflicts that someone feel within one role o 1 status WHY BIRTH RATES ARE CHANGING • Macro-level factors o Economic recessions o Immigrant women o Access to health care reduces fertility o Publicly funded family planning services o Social class and women’s participation in the labor force • Micro-level factors o Increases the number of child free couples o Not wanting more than 2 children o Postponing marriage o Birth spacing WHY ARE MANY PEOPLE POSTPONING PARENTHOOD • Micro-level factors o Daunting jobs and careers o Single women don’t want a child on their own o Attitudes about the ideal family size have changed, this influencing individual decisions o Women who enjoy their jobs are reluctant to take an balancing child rearing and paid work • Macro-level factors o Economy o High divorce rate o Women’s reduced concerns about their biological clock o Abysmal family leaves policies, no national child care programs, and rigid work schedules o Higher educated women delay childbearing BECOMING A PARENT • About 72% of American adults have children, but almost half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended • A couples first pregnancy is an important milestone in life • Different parents worry about different things: o Planners ▪ The excited ones o Acceptance of fate o Ambivalent couples ▪ The news is devastating ▪ Abortion or adoption o Yes-no couples ▪ One partner is on board and the other is not on board PARENTING STYLES • Indulgent (permissive) – parents exert little to no control and give few restrictions or guidelines o Responsive to children’s needs but no demand • Authoritarian – parents attempt to shape children according to fixed standards by emphasizing obedience and punishment o Most negative outcomes for children • Authoritative – parents nurture children by providing warmth, support, and acceptance, and emphasizing positive reinforcement o The best parenting style • Uninvolved – parents rarely given rules and offer little attention • ABSENTEE FATHER • Reason o Having babies during the teen years and not being able to provide financially o Deserting unwed mothers, incarceration, and physical or mental disabilities o Drug abuse, divorce and not paying child support • Increase their children’s likelihood of economic and social deprivation SOCIAL POLICY AND FAMILY RESILIENCE • Maternity and family leave o The Family Medical Leave Act ▪ Governmental act that requires employers w/ over 50 employees to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave to eligible employees (men and women) to care for themselves or their immediate families w/ specified medical conditions WHAT IF WE CANNOT GET PREGNANT? • Infertility o Inability to conceive after one year of persistent unprotected intercourse or inability to carry a pregnancy to term o Peak age of infertility in women is 27 and 35 for men • Causes of infertility o Many cases related to postponing too long (age) o Biological or lifestyle choices leading to abnormality • Consequences of infertility o Personal level – depression o Couple level – sex life may suffer o Social level – feelings of isolation GENETIC ENGINEERING: ITS BENEFITS AND COSTS • Benefits o Couples who can’t have children can have them o Women suffering from cancer can freeze their eggs before treatment o Helps detect prenatal genetic disorders and abnormalities • Costs o Increased risk of birth defects o Treatments are expensive o Parents’ and scientists’ right to create designer babies o Use of sperm w/ serious genetic disease o Babies have more than two parents INFERTILITY • Artificial insemination – a medical procedure in which semen is artificially introduced onto the vagina or uterus at about the time of ovulation • In vitro fertilization – involves surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, fertilizing them in a petri dish w/ sperm from the husband or other donor, and then reintroducing them back into the uterus • Surrogacy – a woman who is capable of carrying a pregnancy to term serves as a substitute for a woman who cannot bear children • Hormone therapy – use of fertility drugs to increase the monthly release of eggs • Cryopreservation – freezing eggs or sperm for later use ADOPTION • Public adoption o Occurs through licensed public agencies • Private adoption o Arranged directly b/w adoptive parents and the biological mother, usually through the assistance of an attorney • Closed adoption o All identity information is sealed and unavailable to parties • Semi-open adoptions o Biological and adoptive families exchange personal information through a social worker or attorney, but have no direct contact • Open adoption o Involves direct contact b/w the biological and adoptive parents BIRTH CONTROL • Still focus on abstinence only THEORIES • What theories describe the relationships b/w parents and children? o Functionalism ▪ Parents model appropriate behavior • Modeling – when children do what they see their parents so, instead of what their parents tell them to do o Conflict theory ▪ Conflict affects the development of the people in the family o Symbolic interactionism ▪ Children become socialized by first playing at reality FAMILY VIOLENCE • The socialization process often propagates rape culture and encourages violence against women • We are more likely to be injured by a family member than a stranger at any time during our lives • Nationally, 1 in 4 women will become victims of IPV • IN THE U.S. – HOME IS THE MOST DANGEROUS PLACE FOR WOMEN • 3 women are killed every day in the U.S. from a partner or spouse • IPV is a leading cause of death for women ages 15-44 on the U.S. SOME STATES • Every 2 minutes a person is sexually assaulted in our society • 60% of sexual assaults are not reported to the police • 97% of rapists will never spend a day in jail • 1out of every 6 (1/5 for college women) American women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in her lifetime. Among all victims, about nine out of ten are female • 1 out of every 33 American men has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in his lifetime SOCIOLOGIST MICHAEL JOHNSON • At least two main types of IPV o Intimate terrorism o Situational couple violence INTIMATE TERRORISM • power and control wheel • 80% of homicides will occur in a violent relationship when the woman tries to leave • Marital Rape o An abusive act in which a man forces his wife to have unwanted sexual intercourse. Marital rape has been a crime in all states since 1993. o An estimated 25% of women nationwide have been raped by their spouse, yet they don’t often report it • Why do women stay? o Fear o Walker theorized the cycle of violence results in learned helplessness o Hope the abuser will change o Home becomes a prison (emotionally and physically) o Economic hardship and homelessness o Need for child support o Blame themselves • The cycle of domestic violence o Phase 1: the tension-building phase ▪ They start to wonder what will trigger their partner o Phase 2: the acute battering incident phase o Phase 3: the calm or “honeymoon” phase ▪ They violent partner makes the other one believe they will change and they will never do it again • Situational couple viol
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