EXAM 1 Chapters # 15 Neha Patel
Exam Date: Monday, September 23
Topics Covered: Introduction (Chapter 1 of Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form
and Function by Saladin, 6th ed.); Chemistry (Chapter 2); Cells (Ch. 3); Genetics (Ch. 4);
Histology (Ch. 5)
o Know the scientific method & why it is important
1. Can be used to separate science from philosophy
2. It helps support a hypothesis
3. It helps disprove a hypothesis.
What makes it different from other types of investigation?
1. It allows science to advance by trail and error.
o Inductive vs. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
1. Basis for much of what we know, but it is weaker method
2. Makes more assumptions to draw conclusions
1. Makes fewer assumptions; easier to falsify if untrue.
o Know what constitutes reasonable proof in science.
1. Reliable observations
2. Tested and confirmed repeatedly
3. Not fabricated by an credible observation
Know the features necessary for a exact experimental design
1. Sample Size: Number of people used in study. Controls individual
2. Controls: Untreated vs. Treated
3. Psychosomatic Effects (“Placebo Effect”): Effects the state of mind
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4. Minimize Experimenter Bias: Prevent double-blind study
5. Statistical Testing: Results due to the variable being tested
o Know the difference between anatomy and physiology
Anatomy: Study of structures
1. Gross Anatomy: Study of observable structures
2. Histology: Study of tissues, cells
3. Pathology: Study of incorrect/diseased anatomy
Physiology: Is the study of how these structures function
1. Physiology: How the systems work
2. Pathophysiology: Study of how disease works
o Know the four characteristics of living things
3. Adapts to the Environment
o Understand the difference between reductionism and holism
Reductionism: Complex structures can be understood by studying its simpler
1. Adopted by Aristotle, productive approach of thinking, essential to
Holism: A complex structure cannot be predicted from the properties from its
1. “More then the sum of their parts”.
i. Think of situation!
o What is homeostasis?
1. Body’s ability to detect change and activate responses to oppose it,
thereby maintaining relatively stable internal conditions called Dynamic
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2. Loss of Homeostatic control can cause illness or death.
o Three control mechanisms:
1. Receptor: Monitors and responds to change
2. Control center: Determines the set point
3. Effector: Proves the response to the stimuli
o Know the five environmental factors necessary to sustain life
o Understand what a gradient is
1. Gradients regulated via Homeostasis
o Understand the difference between negative & positive feedback loops
Positive Feedback: Works With the direction of change
1. Occurs during childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, fever, and
generation of nerve signals.
Negative Feedback: Works Against the direction of change
1. Thermostat of the body. Controls blood pressure
2. Responsible for the 3 controls
3. Dynamic Equilberm
− Its not a bad thing, its very important!!
1. Greek, worked with gladiators. Was NOT allowed to dissect. Findings
based on common sense. MOST influential medical textbook
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1. 1 person to dissect, “father of modern human anatomy and physiology.
Published atlas of anatomy.
o Skeletal System:
Provides the framework for muscles
o Know the general proportions of major elements in the human body
We are mainly made up of:
1. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
We have small amounts of metal:
1. Co (Cobalt), Ch (Chromium), Cu (Copper), I (Iodine), Mn (Manganese),
Mg (Magnesium), Se (Selenium), Zn (Zinc)
o Know what protons, neutrons, & electrons are, and what properties of an atom each
Protons: determine the Atomic number, and have a positive charge.
Neutrons: Have no charge. Mass weight (rounded) –Atomic Number
Electrons: Have a negative charge
1. Determine the chemical property of an atom.
Atomic Mass: Given by adding the protons and neutrons.
o Understand what isotopes are
Isotopes: Atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of
neutrons. Isotopes are different forms of a single element.
1. Examples: Carbon 12 and Carbon 14 are both isotopes of carbon, one
with 6 neutrons and one with 8 neutrons (both with 6 protons).
Know what a half-life is.
1. Average time for unstable isotope to decay.
o Understand how ionizing radiation differs from regular radiation
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Radiation: Transfers energy
1. Thermal damage, limited chemical damage. Low energy.
Ionizing Radiation:Alters the electron cloud of atoms
1. Molecular bond damage, extensive chemical damage. High energy.
2. Alpha, Beta, Gamma
o Know what valence is
Number of bonds that can be formed by an atom of an element.
1. They can determine the elements position in the periodic table (“Octet
o ▯ Know what ions are?
1. Charged partials with unequal numbers of protons and electrons.
o Know what covalent bonds vs. ionic bonds are
Covalent Bonds: Sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between nuclei.
Ionic Bonds: Bonds in which one or more electrons from one atom are
removed and attached to another atom, resulting in positive and negative ions
which attract each other.
o Polar vs. nonpolar molecules
1. Polar Molecule: one that has an element that is more electronegative. EX:
2. Nonpolar Molecule: Where the electrical charges are distributed evenly
throughout the molecule.
o Know the difference between hydrophilic, hydrophobic, & amphipathic molecules
1. Hydrophilic: Water loving, Polar
2. Hydrophobic: Water fearing, Non polar, lipids
3. Amphipathic: Both a polar end and a lipid end
o Why are amphipathic molecules so important to living cells?
Amphipathic: Non-polar and polar
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o Know the functional groups, and their formulae
o Know the different types of mixtures
Solution: Solute completely dissolved in a solvent.
1. Hydration spheres.
2. Single Phase
Colloid: Consist of two phase, dispersed and continuous.
1. Dispersed phase not completely dissolved in continuous . “Settle Out”
− EX: Milk
Suspension: Contains particles large enough to settle out.
1. EX: mud in water, dust in air.
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o Understand organic vs. inorganic molecules
Organic: Based on Carbon backbone
Inorganic: Based on some other element.
o Know the unique properties of water
2. High specific heat
3. Strange density
o Understand what hydrogen bonds are & why they are important
1. They come from weak electrical attractions between atoms.
2. Important to physiology, because they explain the properties of water.
− EX: Snowflake
o Understand pH, and what general ranges are acidic, basic, and neutral
Acidic: pH below 7
Basic: pH above 7
Neutral: pH of 7.0
1. EX: Pure water
o Biological molecules: monomers vs. polymers
Monomers: Small molecules, which may be joined together in a repeating
fashion to form more complex molecules, called polymers.
Polymers: Comprised of repeating units of a smaller molecule (monomers).
1. Sugars: Polysaccharides, Glucose, Maltose
2. Proteins: Polypeptides
3. Nucleic acids: DNA
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o Understand dehydration synthesis vs. hydrolysis (opposites)
Dehydration: Making water
Hydrolysis: lysis= “to break”
o Know whatATP is and why it is important
1. Adenosine Trisphosphate, is important because it transports energy to
various cells in the body.
o Know the basic statements that make up the cell theory
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
1. Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells.
2. Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by subcellular stricture.
3. Continuity of life has a cellular basis.
− Cells can only come from other cells.
o Understand why cells are limited in their size
Volume cubes as surface area squares.
o Know the components of the plasma membrane, and be able to identify them in a
Made of proteins and lipids
Composition and function can vary from region to another.
Outer layer of a cell
o Know what a G-protein is
Guanosine triphosphate: a nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three
phosphate groups, which participate in various metabolic reactions, including
− 40% of modern drugs work by altering activity of G proteins.
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o Know the differences between microvilli and cilia
1. Microvilli: Little extensions of the plasma membrane.
− Don’t move. Filled with actin that gives them support.
− Increase the surface area, which helps in transport.
2. Cilia: Much larger.
− Can move, by burning ATP. Hair like. Moves in waves. Made up of
microtubules that give them stiff support.
− Dynein helps cilia to be mobile.
− Kinesin: motion over other organelles in the cytoplasm.
i. Identify in picture
ii. Or are they motile
Structure and where they are found
1. Microvilli are found lining the small intestine
2. Cilia: Found in the uterine tubes, brain, and respiratory track.
How do cilia work in a mucous membrane?
1. With a layer of saline
o Understand simple diffusion
1. Movement of particles from area of high concentration to area of low
− Down a gradient:Area of high contrition to high (nature)
− Up a gradient:Areas of low contrition to high
− Because of spontaneous motion.
Active vs. passive transport▯ ▯
1. Active Transport: ConsumesATP.
− Going against the gradient
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2. Passive Transport: Requires noATP.
o Which molecules can diffuse right across the plasma membrane, and which need a
1. Can DiffuseAcross: Nonpolar, hydrophobic, lipid-soluble
2. Cannot Diffuse Acros