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BIO 201

EXAM 1 Chapters # 1­5 Neha Patel Exam Date: Monday, September 23 Topics Covered: Introduction (Chapter 1 of Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function by Saladin, 6th ed.); Chemistry (Chapter 2); Cells (Ch. 3); Genetics (Ch. 4); Histology (Ch. 5) I. Introduction o Know the scientific method & why it is important 1. Can be used to separate science from philosophy 2. It helps support a hypothesis 3. It helps disprove a hypothesis.  What makes it different from other types of investigation? 1. It allows science to advance by trail and error. o Inductive vs. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning  Inductive: 1. Basis for much of what we know, but it is weaker method 2. Makes more assumptions to draw conclusions  Hypothetico-Deductive: 1. Makes fewer assumptions; easier to falsify if untrue. o Know what constitutes reasonable proof in science. 1. Reliable observations 2. Tested and confirmed repeatedly 3. Not fabricated by an credible observation  Know the features necessary for a exact experimental design 1. Sample Size: Number of people used in study. Controls individual variation 2. Controls: Untreated vs. Treated 3. Psychosomatic Effects (“Placebo Effect”): Effects the state of mind 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 4. Minimize Experimenter Bias: Prevent double-blind study 5. Statistical Testing: Results due to the variable being tested o Know the difference between anatomy and physiology  Anatomy: Study of structures 1. Gross Anatomy: Study of observable structures 2. Histology: Study of tissues, cells 3. Pathology: Study of incorrect/diseased anatomy  Physiology: Is the study of how these structures function 1. Physiology: How the systems work 2. Pathophysiology: Study of how disease works o Know the four characteristics of living things 1. Organization 2. Metabolism 3. Adapts to the Environment 4. Reproduction o Understand the difference between reductionism and holism  Reductionism: Complex structures can be understood by studying its simpler components. 1. Adopted by Aristotle, productive approach of thinking, essential to science  Holism: A complex structure cannot be predicted from the properties from its separate parts. 1. “More then the sum of their parts”. i. Think of situation! o What is homeostasis? 1. Body’s ability to detect change and activate responses to oppose it, thereby maintaining relatively stable internal conditions called Dynamic 2 EXAM 1 Chapters # 1­5 Neha Patel Equilibrium. 2. Loss of Homeostatic control can cause illness or death. o Three control mechanisms: 1. Receptor: Monitors and responds to change 2. Control center: Determines the set point 3. Effector: Proves the response to the stimuli o Know the five environmental factors necessary to sustain life 1. Pressure 2. Atmosphere 3. Heat 4. Nutrients 5. Water o Understand what a gradient is 1. Gradients regulated via Homeostasis o Understand the difference between negative & positive feedback loops  Positive Feedback: Works With the direction of change 1. Occurs during childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, fever, and generation of nerve signals.  Negative Feedback: Works Against the direction of change 1. Thermostat of the body. Controls blood pressure 2. Responsible for the 3 controls 3. Dynamic Equilberm − Its not a bad thing, its very important!! o Galen 1. Greek, worked with gladiators. Was NOT allowed to dissect. Findings based on common sense. MOST influential medical textbook 3 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] o Vesalius 1. 1 person to dissect, “father of modern human anatomy and physiology. Published atlas of anatomy. o Skeletal System:  Provides the framework for muscles II. Chemistry o Know the general proportions of major elements in the human body  We are mainly made up of: 1. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen  We have small amounts of metal: 1. Co (Cobalt), Ch (Chromium), Cu (Copper), I (Iodine), Mn (Manganese), Mg (Magnesium), Se (Selenium), Zn (Zinc) o Know what protons, neutrons, & electrons are, and what properties of an atom each determines  Protons: determine the Atomic number, and have a positive charge.  Neutrons: Have no charge. Mass weight (rounded) –Atomic Number  Electrons: Have a negative charge 1. Determine the chemical property of an atom.  Atomic Mass: Given by adding the protons and neutrons. o Understand what isotopes are  Isotopes: Atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are different forms of a single element. 1. Examples: Carbon 12 and Carbon 14 are both isotopes of carbon, one with 6 neutrons and one with 8 neutrons (both with 6 protons).  Know what a half-life is. 1. Average time for unstable isotope to decay. o Understand how ionizing radiation differs from regular radiation 4 EXAM 1 Chapters # 1­5 Neha Patel  Radiation: Transfers energy 1. Thermal damage, limited chemical damage. Low energy.  Ionizing Radiation:Alters the electron cloud of atoms 1. Molecular bond damage, extensive chemical damage. High energy. 2. Alpha, Beta, Gamma o Know what valence is  Number of bonds that can be formed by an atom of an element. 1. They can determine the elements position in the periodic table (“Octet Rule”) o ▯ Know what ions are? 1. Charged partials with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. o Know what covalent bonds vs. ionic bonds are  Covalent Bonds: Sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between nuclei.  Ionic Bonds: Bonds in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, resulting in positive and negative ions which attract each other. o Polar vs. nonpolar molecules 1. Polar Molecule: one that has an element that is more electronegative. EX: Water. 2. Nonpolar Molecule: Where the electrical charges are distributed evenly throughout the molecule. o Know the difference between hydrophilic, hydrophobic, & amphipathic molecules 1. Hydrophilic: Water loving, Polar 2. Hydrophobic: Water fearing, Non polar, lipids 3. Amphipathic: Both a polar end and a lipid end o Why are amphipathic molecules so important to living cells?  Amphipathic: Non-polar and polar 5 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] o Know the functional groups, and their formulae o Know the different types of mixtures  Solution: Solute completely dissolved in a solvent. 1. Hydration spheres. 2. Single Phase  Colloid: Consist of two phase, dispersed and continuous. 1. Dispersed phase not completely dissolved in continuous . “Settle Out” − EX: Milk  Suspension: Contains particles large enough to settle out. 1. EX: mud in water, dust in air. 6 EXAM 1 Chapters # 1­5 Neha Patel o Understand organic vs. inorganic molecules  Organic: Based on Carbon backbone  Inorganic: Based on some other element. o Know the unique properties of water 1. Liquid 2. High specific heat 3. Strange density 4. Polar o Understand what hydrogen bonds are & why they are important 1. They come from weak electrical attractions between atoms. 2. Important to physiology, because they explain the properties of water. − EX: Snowflake o Understand pH, and what general ranges are acidic, basic, and neutral  Acidic: pH below 7  Basic: pH above 7  Neutral: pH of 7.0 1. EX: Pure water o Biological molecules: monomers vs. polymers  Monomers: Small molecules, which may be joined together in a repeating fashion to form more complex molecules, called polymers.  Polymers: Comprised of repeating units of a smaller molecule (monomers). Very long 1. Sugars: Polysaccharides, Glucose, Maltose 2. Proteins: Polypeptides 3. Nucleic acids: DNA 7 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] o Understand dehydration synthesis vs. hydrolysis (opposites)  Dehydration: Making water  Hydrolysis: lysis= “to break” o Know whatATP is and why it is important 1. Adenosine Trisphosphate, is important because it transports energy to various cells in the body. III. Cells o Know the basic statements that make up the cell theory  The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. 1. Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. 2. Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by subcellular stricture. 3. Continuity of life has a cellular basis. − Cells can only come from other cells. o Understand why cells are limited in their size  Volume cubes as surface area squares. o Know the components of the plasma membrane, and be able to identify them in a figure  Surrounds cell  Made of proteins and lipids  Composition and function can vary from region to another.  Outer layer of a cell o Know what a G-protein is  Guanosine triphosphate: a nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three phosphate groups, which participate in various metabolic reactions, including protein synthesis. − 40% of modern drugs work by altering activity of G proteins. 8 EXAM 1 Chapters # 1­5 Neha Patel o Know the differences between microvilli and cilia 1. Microvilli: Little extensions of the plasma membrane. − Don’t move. Filled with actin that gives them support. − Increase the surface area, which helps in transport. 2. Cilia: Much larger. − Can move, by burning ATP. Hair like. Moves in waves. Made up of microtubules that give them stiff support. − Dynein helps cilia to be mobile. − Kinesin: motion over other organelles in the cytoplasm. i. Identify in picture ii. Or are they motile  Structure and where they are found 1. Microvilli are found lining the small intestine 2. Cilia: Found in the uterine tubes, brain, and respiratory track.  How do cilia work in a mucous membrane? 1. With a layer of saline o Understand simple diffusion 1. Movement of particles from area of high concentration to area of low concentration. − Down a gradient:Area of high contrition to high (nature) − Up a gradient:Areas of low contrition to high − Because of spontaneous motion.  Active vs. passive transport▯ ▯ 1. Active Transport: ConsumesATP. − Going against the gradient 9 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 2. Passive Transport: Requires noATP. o Which molecules can diffuse right across the plasma membrane, and which need a carrier? Why? 1. Can DiffuseAcross: Nonpolar, hydrophobic, lipid-soluble 2. Cannot Diffuse Acros
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