Exam Date: Monday, October 21
I. Integument: Chapter 6
o Cell types/ layers of the epidermis
• Which layers of cells are primarily living or dead cells
• Be able to identify structures in a figure of the epidermis (cross-section)
o Be able to identify structures in a cross-section of the dermis
o Factors that influence skin color
• What are some abnormal skin colors, and know what conditions they
o Skin markings (e.g., friction ridges, etc...)
• Reticular Layer: Deeper layer
Dense irregular connective tissue
Tough collagen tissue
Stretch marks: tear the dense irregular tissue
Tension lines: Direction of the fiber as they are laid down in
the skin, they follow are regular pattern.
• Papillary Layer: Closer to the surface
Made up of areolar tissue, which is really loose.
Makes it easy for bacteria to get in
a. Leukocytes (white blood cells) look for those bacteria
Rich in small blood cells
• Not part of skin, but still know what it is & where
o Factors contributing to skin color
• Eumelanin, pheomelanin, hemoglobin, carotene
• Skin color due mostly to type & amount of melanin made, not # of
• Abnormal skin colors & problems they can indicate
Cyanosis: blueness of the skin a. Choking or lung disease
b. Cold weather
Erythema: redness of the skin
a. Heat, anger, sunburn
Albinism: Genetic no melanin in the skin
Jaundice: Yellowness of the skin and eyes
a. Liver problems
• Why the normal variation in humans?
Relationship of UV light to vitamin D, folic acid, & cancer
o Know skin markings
o Hair & nails
• Distribution of hairs
• Three types of hair
• Structure of hair & follicle
• Determining factors of hair color & texture
• Stages of the hair cycle
• Hair growth & loss
• Functions of the hair
o Skin glands
• Know all five types, where you find them, and their functions
Especially know differences between the two types of
o Know the causes of the common skin ailments discussed in the lecture
o Skin cancers
• ABCDE rule
• Malignant melanoma- why is it so dangerous? Highly spreadable and resistant to chemotherapy.
o What defines first, second, and third degree burns?
• 3 degree burn is usually painless, because nerves are burnt away
II. Bone: Chapter 7
o Know the functions of bone
• 1. Support: The bones support the body and its structures.
• 2. Protection. Bones enclose and protect organs.
• 3. Movement. The action of muscles on bones produces movement.
• 4. Electrolyte balance. The skeleton stores calcium and phosphate and
releases them as needed.
• 5. Acid–base balance. Bone tissue buffers the blood by absorbing or
releasing alkaline salts such as calcium phosphate.
• 6. Blood formation. Red bone marrow is the major producer of blood
cells, both red and white.
o Know all of the general features of a bone
• Long bones: are conspicuously longer than wide.
Long bones serve as rigid levers that are acted upon by skeletal
muscles to produce body movements.
Examples are the humerus of the arm, the radius and ulna of the
forearm, the femur of the thigh, the tibia and fibula of the leg, and
the metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges of hands and feet.
• Short bones: are nearly equal in length and width.
a. They have limited motion and glide across one another.
b. Examples are the carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.
• Flat bones enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surface for
Most are not truly flat, but conspicuously curved; they all have a
relatively broad, thin, sandwich-like structure. Examples are most cranial bones and the ribs, sternum, scapula,
• 4. Irregular bones have shapes that do not fit into the preceding
Examples include the vertebrae and some skull bones, such as the
sphenoid and ethmoid.
o Differences between osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
• Osteogenic: Stem cells of the bone
• Osteoblast: Build bone
• Osteocytes: Mature bone cells
Trapped into the lacunae
Uses branches to communicate
• Osteoclast: Recycle bone
Not related to the other three
o Know what makes up bone matrix (both organic & inorganic components)
o Histology of both compact & spongy bone
o Red marrow (hemopoietic tissue) and yellow marrow, & where to find them
o Osteogeneis/ ossification
• 1) when the bony skeleton forms in the embryo
2) throughout childhood into early adulthood
3) to repair and remodel bones during life
o Intramembranous vs. endochondral ossification (know details of both)
a. Formation of bone directly within loose fibrous connective
b. The bone forms directly within mesenchyme (i.e.
embryonic connective tissue).
c. Occurs in skull, mandible, most flat bones
d. Mostly occurs before birth.
1) ossification center appears in the fibrous membrane
2) osteoblasts secrete bone matrix within the membrane
3) woven bone and periosteum (outer covering) form
4) a bone collar of compact bone forms and red marrow appear
a. Mesenchyme -> hyaline cartilage -> bone. b. Mostly after birth
c. Most of the bones form this way
1) a bone collar forms around the existing hyaline cartilage
structure (kind of makes a mold)
2) cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then
3) the periosteal bud invades the cavities, supplying blood and
nutrients into the cavities, so that spongy bone can form
4) the diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms
5) secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses
6) the cartilage in the epiphyses calcifies; hyaline cartilage
remains only in the epiphyseal plates and the articular
o Bone growth & remodeling
• Know difference between interstitial and appositional growth
a. Longitudinal growth
b. Occurs at the epiphyseal plate
c. Cartilage grows ahead of ossification
d. Puberty causes ossification to occur faster then cartilage
growth, resulting in ossification of epiphyseal plate and no
a. Growth in diameter/thickness
b. Osteocytes in the periosteum on the outsides of the bone
lay down new bone adding material to the outside of the
c. Osteoclasts in the endosteum in the medullary of bones
remove bone material increasing the size of the medullary
d. The bone is remodeled through normal remodeling to
accommodate the larger size for the Haversian system.
• Wolff’s law of bone, & how it relates to bone remodeling
Bone grows or remodels where stressors are placed on it