Overgeneralization: when we look for patterns among specific things we observe around us, we often assume that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern. This can lead to misdirect or impede inquiry. Selective observation: once you conclude that the pattern exists, you focus on future events and situations that fit the pattern, ignoring those that don"t. Pseudoscience: a collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method. Descriptive research: more accurate and precise than casual research. Answer questions of what, when, where, and how. Answers the questions of why to the research. Units of analysis: the what or whom being studied. In social science research the most typical units of analysis are individual people, there are infinite units of analysis. Ecological fallacy: erroneously basing conclusions about individuals solely on the observation of groups.