[CRJ 404] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 20 pages long Study Guide!

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ASU
CRJ 404
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 Thinking About Juvenile Delinquency in a Diverse Society
What Do You Think?
In America, do race, class, and gender still matter?
Juvenile Delinquency: Historical Approaches
Defining children and childhood has not always been easy.
Definition dependent on the historical period.
Prior to the late 1800s in the United States, children were seen as an excellent source of
cheap and dutiful labor.
As changes in labor laws increased, children gained some legal rights.
Most states define juveniles as those individuals who are under the age of 18.
Juvenile Delinquency
Definition of delinquency is a bit complicated.
Definition of delinquency has also been dependent on both the historical period and the
geographic region.
Definition of delinquency is an act committed by an individual under the age of 18 that
violates the penal code of the region in which the act was committed.
Juvenile delinquency is a social construct.
Status Offenses What Are They?
Definition of delinquency is a bit complicated.
Definition of delinquency has also been dependent on both the historical period and the
geographic region.
Definition of delinquency is an act committed by an individual under the age of 18 that
violates the penal code of the region in which the act was committed.
Juvenile delinquency is a social construct.
Chronic Status Offenders
Chronic status offenders are those who engage in repeated and systematic behavior.
These behaviors have been previously addressed by school, family, or a social service
agency.
America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being
It is important to understand the social context in which juveniles are living
Tracks 7 key areas of well-being, including family and social environment, economic
circumstances, health care, physical environment and safety, behavior, education, and
health
The most recent study reports that there were 74.2 million children (ages 0-17) in the
U.S. in 2010
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Key National Indicators of Well-Being:
Race:
Racial and ethnic diversity is also increasing among children.
In 2010, 54 percent of children were white, 23 percent were Latino, 14 percent were
black, 4 percent were Asian, and 5 percent were, “all other races” (Federal Interagency
Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2011).
It is projected that in 2050, Latino children will be the majority (39 percent) of children,
with white children following at 38 percent of the child population.
Economic:
The percentage of children living in poverty has increased in the last decade from its low
in 2001 of 16% to 21% in 2010.
Most striking is the link between race and ethnicity and the likelihood of living in
poverty.
In 2009, 36 percent of black children, 33 percent of Latino children, and 12 percent of
white children lived in poverty.
Poverty rate was three times higher for black than white youth, and almost three times
higher for Latino children than white children.
Physical Environment and Safety:
While the percentage of children living in polluted conditions has decreased, 59% of all
children still live in an area where at least one air pollutant was above the allowable
levels.
Inadequate housing has been increasing for children. Inadequate housing is measured by
crowding, physical inadequateness, and cost burden (greater than 30 percent of family
income).
Education, Race, and Gender:
Educational attainment has also been increasing for juveniles.
The percentage of children graduating with a diploma or GED increased.
All racial groups experienced increases. However, Latino children had the greatest
percentage increase, but had consistently lower graduation rates than either white or
black children.
Enrollment in college right after high school has increased. This was especially true for
White females.
Overview of Findings
Be cautious.
Conditions are getting better for youth in some arenas.
Economic conditions are actually worse for children.
More youth live in economic uncertainty now, insecure both about shelter and food.
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