CCOT 2-4.doc

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Arizona State University
Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Change over Time 2/4 Americas Economical Political Social Communal efforts -> Forced Labor Native Authoritarian government -> Polytheism -> Forced Conversion Beginning: Spanish elite -Group labor systems (mit’a) and tributary Beginning: states (Aztec taking over governments, but -Aztec/Incan time periods, stress on letting the locals rule Global: Ottoman, Tang) Beginning: Authoritarian; power in the Polytheism, the ruler was the son of the Sun -Barter system, lightweight trade of minerals aristocracy lltGod. -Inca Vertical Exchange -> -> Changing point: European Contact, see left; Change: Middle: treaty of tordesillas -European contact, etc. European contact, Cortes defeats Aztecs, -> takes land and converts them to slaves. End: Establishment of Spanish vice royalty, End: -> power to Spanish officials, discontinuation of -Forced conversion of indigenous people into End: Forced labor systems (encomienda, Aztec tributary systems and they are Christianity/Catholicism. rehashed mit’a) in sugar plantations and silver converted into slavery. -Lower of status in general mines. Coercive labor to extract wealth. -Catholic Church became primary agent for chartered companies Cont: Centralized Authority (Aztec/Incan religious change. This ended up breaking rulers were “sons” of God, Spanish officials) down ethnic boundaries. Cont: agriculturally based throughout time Elites still used as political beings even after ------------------------------------------- period? spain Beginning: Social power in hands of Aztec ruler, aristocrats, elites, very distinct social GT (splits into all three categories): classes. Colonialism + Maritime exploration -> Changing point: European contact, etc. (forced slavery) -> End: Aztecs fall in social rankings, most indigenous people forced into labor systems or slavery, ethnic boundaries are erased ultimately China Economic Political Social China: Dynastic Change: Unity-> Ice Age-> Chaos/dysfunction Isolation -> Reintegration The Ming -> The Qing (Manchu) Beginning: Beginning: Beginning: (Ming Empire) -Isolated because capital was moved to -Ming started isolated until Emperor Yongle Many large landowners, artists, officials, and Nanjing in the far-east. Hongwu choked off came into power. He moved back the capital to rich merchants who had purchased ranks or relations with relations in central Asia/middle Beijing and started establishing foreign trade prepared their sons for the examinations lived east (fostered by mongols) with strict limits by maritime expansion (the hostile mongols in the cities. The elite classes created a on trade/visitors were still controlling land trade routes that brilliant culture in which arts of all sort were encouraged Ming to go maritime). closely interwoven. Slow shifts -> Reinstated civil service examination to create a -Emperor Yongle coming to power, strong government united by Confucian Middle: established trade relationships with Middle- principles. The Little Ice Age caused agricultural distress, East, went to maritime exploration because famine, uprisings, epidemics, and disease -> Mongols controlled the caravan routes. steep decline in population. Corruption of Zheng-he’s voyages. End: Qing take over Ming because Ming invited government. Workers threw themselves into Manchus into imperial army to fight Japanese. the kilns to protest working conditions. End: Weakened by strain of repelling Japanese, -Prosperity under emperor Kangxi in the Chinese defenses in northeast weak. Manchus End: Manchu dynasty as he fixed roads, take over Ming when Beijing taken by rebels. (Qing take over Ming), in the Southwest, there established and fixed roads/sea routes, and were repeated uprisings among native encouraged trade with the Europeans. peoples crowded by the immigration of Cont: Scholar exams Chinese farmers. The coastal towns were -Dutch India company , catholic conversion often looted by Japanese pirates. (Matteo Ricci) Kangxi repaired roads Civil service exams that were reestablished in waterworks, transit taxes, allowed for the Ming were kept in the Qing. Continuity: economic incentive to trade with Euros and Confucianism others, (wallpaper, silk tea). Canton system Global: established Global: Silver inflation in multiple countries (Middle East, China, Europe) Continuity: European demand for Chinese goods. Trade with western countries. (Tea, silk, porcelain) AFRICA Small fragmented Kingdoms -> Beginning: Overland trade routes -> Global Continuity: never centralized. -Small traditions (presence) -Men were being taken in masses to be sold Beginning: into slavery, horrible conditions. -Gold coast trade with Europe. As American Middle: colonies/plantations had not been established, the emphasis was on natural Fewer men because of slavery caused women resources such as gold/silver. (Depending on to marry Europeans and others who came to time period. By 1500s, colonies were already Africa. Polygamy because of gender being established.) imbalance. Change: -American colonization, disease that crippled End: the native populations (which had at first -Christianity spreads as Europe gains more satisfied the European need for manual and more influence in Africa labor) caused them to look elsewhere, and -As slavery was abolished, there was an influx begin to trade slaves extensively with Africa. of people sent to Africa (?) End: -African slave trade (atlantic circuit) Drastic Change (?) Increased exportation of natural resources -Kings began selling captured prisoners of war captured by expanding African Slaves to such as silver and gold to European European slave traders countries, Africans gained textiles and weaponry from the Europeans -Southern Grasslands in Africa during the 17th century suffered droughts which drove Cont: Gold/silver continued to be a
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