CCOT Essay 10-18-10.doc

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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

CCOT Essay For information on the CCOT essay in general, lEssay Guidelines . The essay on Monday will be a mono-theme essay, confirmed for all of Anderson and Murphy’s classes. For global trends, utilize this: Rubric and some sample essays: Time Period ● 600: Fall of Roman Empire / Rise of Islam/Creation of Byzantine Empire/beginning of Manors ● 1200: Crusades ended (remember there were 4 of them; the last 2 were unsuccessful) ● or 1400 Europe - Political In Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire due to Germanic invasions by 600, political power shifted from imperialism to feudalism, eventually leading to the Church’s omnipotent involvement in government by 1200, while still keeping power in the Thesis nobility the whole time. Although power remained with nobility from 600 to 1200 in Europe, imperialism evolved into feudalism and the Church gained greater influence over the government after the fall of the Roman Empire from Germanic invasions in 600. (alternate) Beginning Middle End Regional/Local Fall of Rome: Imperial Church Begins to Take Interest Germanic Tribes take over Framework=>Feudalism in Government Western Empire and Huns sack Turning point! Rome The imperial framework Church clergy involved in gov’t crumbled as German traditions admin (bureaucratic operations) Diocletian reforms (forcing gained influence, eventually people who stay in same work, feudalism arose (manors/self the pope had jurisdiction over making their children work in the sufficiency; less centralization) church and clergy but bishops same field as their parents) led to who owned land owed dues to civil unrest Increasing threats and fear of kings; kings and pope argue who pillagers, etc. led to the rise of gets to appoint bishops Rome and Byzantine officially feudalism: separate 793: Vikings appear on the scene. There was tension between the Attacked coast and inland towns papacy and the king Constantine moves the capital to with their superior seafaring skills Constantinople - shift of power Destro Holy Roman Empire: reign of (causes the western half to Germanic emperors (the weaken and break off later due to Carolingian family); influence of intense focus on the east) the Pope reduced the power of the Holy Roman Emperor King Henry II and Thomas Becket fought over control, eventually ending with Henry losing authority 1095: Pope Urban II declares Crusades (see Europe - Social!) Global Trends Expansion was hard to fund and *Feudalism developed Religion played major role in as the money went to the military independently in other empires around this time the economy weakened as well; countries due to the same also those military exploits were reasons rarely successful and the Empire Examples: fell anyway Examples: Holy Roman Empire Feudalism also occurred in Japan Islamic Caliphates were ^ (different classes, shogun, essentially religious governments this is economics and does not daimyo, samurai) Mediterranean (ex. the Abbasid Caliphate courts entirely make sense... dealt with issues of theocracy) Examples: * = you should probably use this. Crusades (see Europe - Social!) The Roman Empire Han China CT Every government had power to a few people: -Feudalism had Lords -Church Rule had The Pope and High Bishops Christianity used to advance political agendas/gain political influence? In Latin Church, Pope ruled much of the land because of Hildebrand, Italian monk who sealed the powers of the Pope Europe - Social Thesis Beginning Middle End Regional/Local first get headings then make 1054: Formal schism between 1095: During the early Crusades, thesis Latin/Orthodox Churches there was general support despite The effect of manors during early theological differences between Medieval Europe created a self- Monasticism: groups of monks Orthodox/Roman churches. sufficient economy. Trade begins and nuns living in organized to decrease and this leads to the communities outside of society. impact of Crusades: exposure to beginning of feudalism. People in these societies exhibitedMuslim ideas (which came from celibacy, poverty and obedience. Greece, translated by Arabs, then 700s: Feudalism creates self- They planted Christianity in new translated back)(for example, the sufficient, isolated manors with lands and provided refuge for treatises on Arab medicine, poor communication to outside women. They also aided travelers Arabic translations on Greek events (serfs => vassals => lords). and organized agricultural thought-->effect on Euro Manors became the primary production. philosophy) (this is gradual centers of agricultural production change) and were often attacked due to Demographic change their vulnerability. Manor life agricultural revolution= increase reflected personal status, and population nobles exercised complete control revival of trade over serfs (agricultural workers New technology, such as the that belonged to the manor) horse collar, increased agricultural efficiency and brought more Increased power to land owners wealth. and aristocrats 1054: Formal schism between Latin/Orthodox Churches peasants and serfs grew short during the Bubonic Plague. Global Trends At the time, the Roman Empire Feudalism also occurred in Japan Although the end of the Islamic falls thus slowing down trade (different classes, shogun, Empire came which might have led to the daimyo, samurai, pretty much beginning of a self-sufficient worked the same way) economy (manors and feudalism) CT Spread of Christianity (Orthodox to Kievan Russia) Byzantine Empire: women continually suppressed (veiled in public, confined more to the household as time went on) Feudalism: women were treated like property and trophies rather than wives Europe - Economic Thesis After the fall of the Roman Empire and trade in Europe in 600, the region began to subsistence farming on manors worked by serfs, and by 1200 trade began to rise again with the Crusades. Beginning Middle End (of crusades) Regional/Local The Roman Empire Fell Provincial Farmers=>Feudal Revival of Western Europe / Manors Rebirth of Trade Rome: Independent farmers grew -Crusades were economic gain for most of the stuff, which allowed -Development of farming Europe- access to new goods surplus and craft specialization; technology (plow, horseshoe, (pasta, paper, refined sugar, bartering horse-collar) to plow colored glass, etc.), knowledge (translations of Greek Land ownership is source of -Since each manor was self- philosophy/science), and trade power sustained, trade entered decline. goods (spices, wax, cotton, dye, paper, sugar, oranges), and trade Traded over Silk Road -Wealth began to fluctuate, routes (maritime trade) residing mostly with nobles. -Reintroduction of currency/credit When they spent to much money -Agricultural surplus (again) in military they fell -serfs began to develop crafts -The arrival of the horse collar (with permission from their lords) Independent cities allowed for Depended on slavery economic versatility -Due to manors, no more dependency of slavery 1095: Pope Urban II declares Crusades (see Europe - Social!) Global Trends Silk Road trade was profitable to Money remained with the few Crusades started trade between many regions nobles the Middle East (Arab, Iran) and Europe (spices, textiles, etc. to Europe. System of credit by Roman Catholic church, still in use today. (credit accounts) CT Wealth remains in the hands of the nobility. Agricultural-based economy -Majority of Romans were farmers - because Rome’s economy was based off of agriculture (basis of its wealth) -Feudalism had serfs on manors- this happened because they were focused on self sufficient farming Europe - Cultural Thesis Beginning End Regional/Local Byzantine: Hagia Sophia, stiff holy figure art 1095: During the early Crusades, there was influence paintings in west euro general support despite theological differences 9th century-Cyril and Methodius preach to between Slavs of Moravia, followers create writing Orthodox/Roman churches. called Cyrillic used by Orthodox Slav Christian impact of Crusades: exposure to Muslim ideas started competition between Greek and Latin (which came from Greece, translated by Christians for Slavs Arabs, then translated back)(for example, the treatises on Arab medicine, Arabic After the German lords began to adapt to the translations on Greek thought-->effect on Roman culture, local self-sufficiency became Euro philosophy) (this is gradual change) more important and literacy declined. New technology, such as the horse collar, increased agricultural efficiency and brought more wealth. 1054: Formal schism between Latin/Orthodox Churches Global Trends Centralization? This channeled the wealth and production of the empire to the capital CT Continued suppression of women. Middle East - Political The creation of the Umma by Muhammad in 600 gave way to Thesis formation and succession of caliphates, who were eventually replaced by Turkish Mamluks, the whole time gaining land and culminating in Islamic control of the Middle East by 1200. Beginning Middle End Regional/Local Formation of Umma by Creation of the Caliphates By 750: Turkish Mamluks take Muhammad in 622 in Medina Turning point! control The Umma brought together 661-750: Umayyad Caliphate everyone who had Islamic beliefs, -resulted in the transformation of The Caliphate began to lose the beginning of a definite political Islam from a religious to money because outlying group expansionist society. provinces did not pay sufficient -Split between Sunni/Shiite taxes -[Umma- A community of occurred, creating more internal muslims] issues They hired the Mamluks because of distrust When Muhammad died Abu Bakr After the Umayyad’s killed the succeded him as the first caliphate Husayn family for trying to The Buyid princes took control reestablish the right of Ali’s People began to fight over the fmaily to rule, the Shia faction Other groups contributed to the succession to the caliphate, Ali rose. decline and eventual fall of the became the caliph, and then after he Abbasid Caliphate was killed Yazid became the Any land that was conquered was Umayyad Caliph not given to islamic rulers, Ulama preserved the unity of the instead it remained under military Umma (the Islamic community in control general) while political
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