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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Societies Chart China (600-1500) Mesoamerica Africa (Gradual Shift) Middle East Tang Empire: avoids Teotihuacan: rapid urban -Mostly small hunter- overcentralization by giving growth: volcanic eruptions gatherer societies POLITICAL power to the local elites, disrupt agriculture and city Groups of pastoralists gentry, officials, religious elites increase power, -Simple irrigation networks that STRUCTURES establishments; continued forced farmers to relocate local people could manage and BEGINNING Confucian examinations to urban centers and build maintain (therefore Confucians had chinampas, sustaining an -Agriculture was not labor gov’t power) urban society intensive, so did not require elites controlled state advanced political systems to Tang princes competing for bureaucracy, tax organize labor political influence enlisted collection, and commerce -Reason: Many different monastic leaders to pray for them languages and cultures and counsel aristocrats to support elites: often of the priestly them (and give wealth to them), class, or wealthy families later Buddhism repressed no centralized ruler, elite Song Empire: neo-Confucianism, families had decentralized civil service examinations still power, some alliances took used to test bureaucrat candidates place and families even used (whereas in Tang, had hereditary “puppet kings” classes, noble lineage, these exams allowed people from any Maya: no political unification, origin for gov’t service, though ruled by rival kingdoms led by wealthy succeeded most), gentry hereditary rulers, struggled only families gathered land as for regional dominance, rulers agriculture had increasing served religious functions (kings productivity (b/c of iron communicated with implements used in rice supernatural residents, deified cultivation, printed books on agri. royal ancestors), fought to techniques) secure captives for religious sacrifice patrilineal, sometimes traced bilaterally MIDDLE Yuan Empire: although Toltecs: created the first Peaceful spread of Islam= Confucianists, Buddhists, conquest state based on New administrative, legal, Daoists, etc. participated in military power, expansive and economic systems gov’t, positions of political influence, all dictated by Islam acquired “Confucians” (hereditary buildings and architecture Expansion of commercial status) not as great as elite suggest warlike rituals and contacts sped up commercial office positions before, sacrifice contacts concerned with counting Change: ISLAM SPREAD TO population and collect taxes ruled by two chieftains/kings, REGION (Persian, Arab, Uighurs but eventually division of appointed for administrators responsibility weakened Toltec of taxation and finance), power organized China into provinces (and had provincial governors) = systemized gov’t control in all parts of China limited gov’t posts open to old Chinese elites, gentry pursued things like commerce (despite lower prestige) merchants gained more privileges and prestige Provincial structure END Ming Empire: started with Aztecs: originally clan -Larger states; more an anti-Mongol theology based (kinship centralized government (strict limits on foreigners, organizations) and served (safety for all) silver replaced paper neighboring states as -More long distance trade money), but gradually mercenaries, serfs, grew in -Large organized labor groups resembled Yuan (retained strength and relocated, (i.e. to build the walls of Great provincial structure and creating twin capitals of Zimbabwe) continued to observe Tenochtitlan and -More distinct structured, hereditary professional Tlatelolco hierarchical governments positions), reactivated exam system for recruiting gov. established conquest state, officials council of aristocrats selected new rulers among ruling lineage, ruler had to legitimate rule by conquest and warfare growing power of the hereditary elites/ruler, warrior elites able to seize land and peasant labor; social division widens as lower classes get material rewards from conquests but lose ability to control/influence decisions as population grew, imposed tribute system on conquered people, also helped support Aztec population growth, as the tributes provided food necessary for the Aztecs as state grew in power, so did the Huitzilopochtli cult, and human sacrifice was common (war captives used), expressed that rebellion/opposition = death GLOBAL TRENDS -Minority ruling a majority, hereditary professional spread of Islam; like in the Delhi Sultanate positions used in Mongol centralization of states Yuan China after contact with Islam CONTINUITY -Buddhism and kings/elites always served Use of magic and Confucianism present in the purpose of directing mysticism to back the government rituals, serving in religion powers and authority of rulers (i.e battle between King Sumanguru and Sundiata, both Muslim kings were considered powerful magicians) -Older beliefs shaped popular thought Tang: many different Teotihuacan: most -Not much products from other important articles of long -Mostly hunter-gathering TRADE countries imported (grape distance trade--pottery -extensive farming wine, tea, sugar, spices, and obsidian tools, found -Sustained on wild foods, thus BEGINNING cotton), Chinese exported in Mexico, Guatemala, no need to trade to get stuff that huge amounts of products all over Mesoamerica they don’t have (silk, porcelain) (huge (created by craftsmen in magnitude of exports on apartment compounds) cargo ships), tilted trade balance with Central religious prestige (city served as Asian caravan routes and a religious center and IOTN and allowed commercial center) attracted precious metals to flow pilgrims for trade into China created powerful military to as Silk Road/IOTN came into protect long distance trade and use, economies of to compel peasant seaports/storehouses increasingly agriculturalists to transfer commercialized--> networks of surplus production to the city, private traders --> tried to look also to expand trade relations for new instruments of credit (but Teotihuacan wasn’t controlled by these military Song: ideas of credit led to elites) interregional credit (flying money, redeemed for coinage, managed by families), gov’t issued paper money (but severe inflation), tax farming; still rapid economic growth (land no longer only source of wealth, era of private capitalism, growth of urban middle class (merchants)) MIDDLE Yuan: re-emergence of Maya: ISLAM! Silk Road use, caravan Toltecs: Increased commercial contact routes connected China to uhhh... (ex with North African Muslim Europe, cities on caravan not much. traders) routes, others on Grand -Consolidation of Middle East Canal and coast and NA under Muslim rule stimulated exchanges along the imperial gov’t issued paper routes that crossed the Sahara money to ease financial pressure (but failed, unsecured notes), copper coinage stabilized by cutting off trade with Japan corporations (investor groups, behaving as a single commercial/legal body) handled economic activity (financed caravans, loans to Mongol elites, tax farming) gentry families engaged in urban commerce END Ming: cut off trade from Aztecs: specialized class Swahili coast other regions to censor of merchants that Rise of Mogadishu and Great technology (gunpowder), controlled long distance Zimbabwe as important trading exception being Yongle’s trade centers sponsorship of Zheng merchant expeditions armed and Long-distance trade He’s voyages (though this could defend themselves Part of Indian Ocean Trading was for tributary states, (provided military/political network and trade did not increase intelligence for Aztec elite) dramatically), restoration merchants still feared publicly of commercial links with displaying power, since the Mid East (Mongols still elites denied them privileges controlled much of (jealous of wealth) caravan routes) commerce dominated by sold Ming ware (highly lightweight products (gold, prized blue on white animal skins, jewels, cacao), style), lacquered screens, used no money or credit, only silk, furniture, porcelain barter, facilitated by use of grew staple crops, not cash crops cacao, gold filled quills, cotton cloth as standard units of value expansion of Aztec land meant markets of the capitols o
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